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It attempts to provide in-depth syntheses and analyses of ICT-related policies, developments and applications, and issues and debates that meet the needs of policymakers, academics, scholars and practitioners from government, the private sector and civil society.

It is hoped that this edition of DirAP fulfills its mission. Mobile and wireless technologies for development in Asia Pacific. Key policy issues in intellectual property and technology in Asia Pacific. In , it cannot be denied that information and communication technologies ICTs have had a transformative impact on the entire Asia Pacific region.

Even in the least developed areas of the region, where ICTs have yet to make a significant mark on everyday life, the processes of lawmaking and the flow of economic goods are in some way influenced by globalization and networked markets enabled by ICTs. As ICTs become central to the economic structure of countries all over the world, the approach to their role in social and economic development has become more sophisticated. In contrast to earlier policy agendas which sought to increase the use of ICTs as a pathway to achieving development, there is an increasing recognition that ICTs cannot be seen as inherently good or bad, as their effects are dependent upon the particular context of use.

For example, access to e-commerce facilities may allow a producer to sell goods to an external market, resulting in higher sales. However, this same channel will allow the importation of goods and services which will pose a threat to local industry development. Therefore, the decision to enter a global electronic market is a strategic one: the success factors for local businesses and regions will depend to a large degree on access to e-business skills, marketing budgets and distribution capacity.

Where these exist, there is the possibility of greatly enhanced economic prospects through e-commerce. Where they do not, it is likely that exposure to global markets will result in overwhelming competition. The early Internet dream that held e-commerce as the saviour of the artisan producer has not come to fruition, even though there have been well-promoted individual success stories.

Instead, the rise of ICTs has brought unprecedented consolidation in markets. Globalization researcher Saskia Sassen explains that this is due to the separation of organizational functions enabled by ICTs: the distinctive way information technologies facilitate dispersal of routine activities and centralization of control activities explains the increasing dominance of cities in global economic activity Sassen While there will always be success stories among the poor, there is no doubt that ICTs are, overall, increasing the gap between wealthy and poor businesses, countries and regions.

More commonly, ICT4D discussions share uncomfortable similarities with ICT analysis emerging from highly developed economies, such as:. Policy initiatives carry ambitious titles such as 'Computers for all' or 'One laptop per child'. These are worthy ideals but in the policy setting they become problematic as they are never finally achievable and they provide little guidance for the tough decision-making that is required to support the use of ICTs where basic poverty issues, such as access to food, water and basic health care, remain unsolved.

Kerry McNamara , p. Despite a proliferation of reports, initiatives and pilot projects in the past several years, we still have little rigorous knowledge about 'what works'. There are abundant 'success stories', but few of these have yet been subjected to detailed evaluation. There is a growing amount of data about the spread of ICTs in developing countries and the differential rates of that spread, but little hard evidence about the sustained impact of these ICTs on poverty reduction and economic growth in those countries.

Given this unhappy trend, why should developing regions even consider expanding their investments in ICT? Would it not make more sense, as some advocate, to concentrate on traditional industries and means of development? Our view is that even though ICTs are making economic development more challenging for developing areas, ignoring ICTs will only lead to further exclusion from the circuits of power and economic prosperity which rely on these technologies. But the challenges for a truly inclusive information society remain substantial and there are no magic solutions to follow from increased levels of investment in ICTs.

It remains the task of each business, government, NGO and individual to formulate a strategy of engagement that suits their particular situation. More importantly, given the very unstable nature of ICT-enabled markets and relationships, it is imperative to foster networks where we can learn from the experiences of others in similar situations, rather than accepting one-size-fits-all philosophies proposed by those benefiting from the status quo.

The thematic chapters in this issue, on Mobile and Wireless Technologies, Risk Communication, Localization, and Intellectual Property Regimes, highlight the wide range of options that are available for policymakers and ICT4D practitioners in these critical areas. The chapters on individual economies also highlight the diversity of ICT4D projects being undertaken throughout the region. In the rest of this chapter we outline the major trends in ICT as they affect human development—including technology, the knowledge economy, digital and economic divides, security, environment and e-Government.

There is also an overview of the regulatory issues facing policymakers in Asia Pacific. After a brief look at the regulatory focus in developed ICT market countries, the chapter focuses on trends observed in developing ICT market countries and seeks to distil the key elements of regulatory approaches that have seemed to work, that have managed to encourage the growth of a healthy, competitive and innovative culture around ICTs.

Our hope is that regulators and authorities in Asia Pacific can assess their own policy framing and implementation mechanisms against these measures and in cases where the measures are already adopted and part of the regulatory approach, there may be scope for a modified approach tailored to a country's culture and business environment.

Technological developments continue to bring about significant changes in cultural and economic life in Asia Pacific. The most significant changes are coming about through three linked areas of innovation: broadband, convergence and wireless. These technological changes reshape the social and economic opportunities that are available in the online environment.

Broadband diffusion is continuing at a rapid pace. At the technological level, DSL has established itself as the dominant protocol for broadband delivery among regions with a high investment in fixed-line Plain Standard Telephone Network PSTN infrastructure. The growth in available bandwidth via broadband changes the kind of content that is available to users, because of two distinctive characteristics.

First, broadband is 'always-on', which means that broadband Internet networks take on the form of a utility or basic service, in the same way that telephone or broadcast networks are consistently available. This means that Voice over IP VoIP , for example, can become a viable replacement for the telephone, although the opportunities to significantly decrease telephony costs are somewhat offset by the lack of control and reliability that nations expect from critical infrastructure.

Who gets to decide what is 'good enough' for service delivery remains a critical issue. The second effect of broadband is in expanded bandwidth, which means that the online distribution of audiovisual material increases. This distribution mechanism replaces broadcast networks for many young and affluent consumers who engage in 'series stacking' downloading many episodes of a series at once or downloading pre-release music or movies.

Further, the growth in processing power of the personal computer now allows users to treat their personal computer as a music and photo library, video player and home video editing suite. Users increasingly send their own audio-visual content among Internet networks, and this has led to the growth of popular user-generated content services such as the video-sharing site YouTube and the photography website Flickr.

The expanded possibilities for audio-visual Internet communication among those without high levels of text literacy should not be underestimated. The Asian region is a world leader in the development of broadband, with countries such as South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan having high penetration rates and offering new kinds of applications and services through high-speed data.

Convergence is coming to the fore, as previously distinct forms of media radio, music stores, television, film, telephony are now both emulated by and reconfigured within Internet networks. These raise challenging business and regulatory issues for communications regulators who have previously relied on regulation of different physical infrastructure for specific media forms. For example, spectrum allocation allowed for a finite number of free-to-air television and radio broadcasters and this also meant that content control via the broadcasters was a relatively simple affair.

In the new media environment where content from a particular producer may be hosted offshore, and with an infinite number of content 'channels', maintaining complete control over local content is almost impossible. There are important cultural policy implications: for example, the concept of a 'quota' of local programming may no longer be appropriate in a non-channel based environment.

There is a continuing proliferation of mobile devices and wireless networks, facilitating both increased movement and reduced costs for 'last mile' delivery. In their country chapter in this volume, Ananya Raihan and Shah M. Ahsan Habib note that Bangladesh had During the same period, fixed line subscribers merely doubled. This reflects the central role that wireless and mobile technologies now play in extending the reach of communications networks in developing countries.

Platform choice for cell spectrum is also critical in a developing country with limited resources. In highly developed market economies, there is sufficient investment capability to allow firms to establish competing infrastructure for example, both GSM and CDMA. For developing countries, a combination of donor and private sector investments from foreign countries will influence the technological platform that is deployed.

This platform choice may have far-reaching consequences in the future. Innovative mobile operators are embracing the changes that are occurring. As Keisuke Kamimura and Adam Peake point out in this volume, in Japan , 'one-seg' telephones capable of receiving digital television broadcasts were sold in the first three months of the service being available.

While this is encouraging, customized content still cannot be produced due to licensing regulations and a range of unresolved issues such as royalties, which are disbursed according to a system designed for a standard television environment. As usual, regulators are on the back foot with respect to the new technological developments.

Once again, Asia is playing a leading role in the deployment of wireless. While Japan has long been a leader in the provision of mobile data services such as i-mode, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the Philippines are becoming recognized for their role at the forefront of the 'mobile information society'. An important issue with respect to mobile and wireless is security.

In a fixed line environment, it is usually possible to track the source of a particular communication made over a network. With the emergence of pre-pay calling and wireless Internet, such tracking is not always possible. Different policy remedies are available. For example, Australia requires identification to be shown at the point of sale of prepaid calling services Australian Communications and Media Authority , although such initiatives also raise privacy issues.

Overall, recent developments reflect the ongoing reality that technological change will continue to occur quickly and regulatory or business propositions that are tightly tied to particular technological solutions are at risk of becoming redundant when these conditions change. A focus on developing the capacity to adapt to change and developing a clear picture of the desired social, economic and cultural objectives, whether in public or private sector bodies, is required.

These new technological developments often make previous technologies obsolete. However, the physical items themselves do not disappear. A serious question regarding the ongoing sustainability of ICT4D is electronic waste or e-waste, which is the most rapidly growing waste problem in the world. Toxic elements of ICTs such as lead, beryllium, mercury, cadmium and flame retardants pose both an occupational and environmental health threat. Most of the consumption of information technologies occurs in wealthy economies, while the waste products are often shipped to developing countries where the raw materials came from in many cases.

This makes ICTs dependent upon a process which for many countries results in a conversion of their natural resources into toxic material. International movement of hazardous waste is controlled by the Basel Convention There is also a proposed amendment, the 'Basel Ban', which prohibits international trade in waste classified as hazardous. Although this has not been ratified, the European Union is voluntarily abiding by the ban Terazono et al.

Nevertheless, close to 40, tons of used electronic equipment find their way to India every month, unnoticed, and they are getting routed to illegal electronics dump grounds, reports Ravi Agarwal, director of the non-profit environmental group Toxics Link. The equipment is then incinerated, contaminating the environment with toxic organic compounds and metals Basu There are positive aspects of the international trade in e-waste.

The working lives of products can be extended through reuse, and second-hand goods can still be used in many recipient countries even if the goods are considered obsolete in the exporting countries. This not only increases resource utilization efficiency, but also provides economic benefits for people in the importing countries. However, it is difficult to ignore the vastly asymmetrical risks associated with this trade. Often, related industries in recipient countries, especially in the informal sectors, do not consider externalities such as environmental effects.

Market price alone does not reflect the true economic value of a material. There are human costs through illness and long-term spoiling of natural resources that can occur through toxic spillage. There are initiatives in the region to control the e-waste problem. The programme is focused on establishing a well-regulated hazardous waste management system and supporting eco-efficient production. Combating e-waste will require a range of strategies. As a net importer of waste, Asia Pacific could negotiate an agreed range of standards that will allow shared monitoring and enforcement.

Much of the current trade occurs in the informal sector and it is difficult to determine the long-term effects. Of course, more eco-friendly manufacturing processes and more serious attempts to reduce the generation of e-waste will be critical. Ultimately, the selling price of technology should also reflect its true cost, including environmental and human costs which are largely ignored by ICT producers. While the entire ICT4D sector would claim to focus on development in favour of the poor, it remains challenging to find simple solutions or agreement on priorities for ICT4D and poverty.

The various technology parks invested in by governments as a key part of ICT strategic plans underscore the difference within countries between those able to make use of ICTs largely in urban centres and the rural poor. The question of how to foster social mobility among the rural poor is complex and will not be easily resolved. McNamara , p. This is not to say that ICTs do not have a role to play, but it is one that needs to be integrated into a larger analysis of structures for example, trade, education that may not be largely driven by ICTs.

For example, a recent UNDP report on telecentres aimed at empowering the poor found that user satisfaction with the centres is 'closely associated with the capability of the staff at the centres and this in turn affects the degree of community acceptance that the centres enjoy' Harris and Rajora , p.

Such findings show how technology by itself is far from sufficient to achieve clear results in the ICT field and that a range of human skills are required. ICTs can, however, make a difference to many specific factors that exacerbate poverty. In the area of disaster alleviation, as outlined by Krishnamurthy Sriramesh, Chanuka Wattegama and Frederick John Abo in this edition, ICTs have a critical role to play in preparation, warning and response.

This comes from the ability of ICTs to duplicate and deliver instantaneous data in many different formats. Krishnamurthy et al. Another issue in pro-poor development is that transferring critical services to ICTs needs to take place without dismantling services that are relied upon by those who are not online. In this edition, Lelia Green and Axel Bruns discuss the further marginalization experienced by those unable to access online services after cutbacks to face-to-face bank transactions in Australia.

At the regional and nation-state level, ICTs and technological convergence pose significant challenges for economic development. Many countries throughout the region are beginning to focus their economic development policies on ICT industries. These industries can be difficult to develop without an existing base as they often require integration with dominant platforms and standard-setting bodies which are based outside the region for example, operating systems such as Microsoft or Apple.

A common strategy is to undertake clustering of ICT industries to enable learning from each other and develop regional linkages. The informal exchanges and learning that take place in technology parks lead to overall skill development. This is why countries such as Iran are providing large subsidies for such initiatives in their five-year development plan.

As Masoud Davarinejad and Massood Saffari point out in their country chapter, there are now nine such parks in Iran alone. Another significant and sometimes controversial strategy is the use of tariffs to protect local ICT manufacturers.

Without such tariffs it is very difficult to develop a local hardware industry and without such an industry technological skills that are necessary for future competitiveness may remain undeveloped. On the other hand, the tariffs may also result in ICT hardware remaining unnecessarily expensive and out of reach of many users and thus prevent the development of new markets. For countries with a limited local industry, like Lao PDR, this debate is ongoing as the chapter on this economy by Phonpasit Phissamay makes clear.

It is difficult for policymakers to view these issues objectively due to the tremendous pressure applied by industries with economic interests in the outcome of policy decisions. Business Process Outsourcing sometimes termed BPO or, more commonly, simply 'outsourcing' continues to be a growing phenomenon that is having a transformational impact on the economies of the region. On one level, outsourcing has become a significant source of income for many Asia Pacific countries as European and US firms make use of ICT to have labour-intensive service tasks such as call centres, animation work and data processing performed in lower wage countries.

However, these industries are challenging to forecast, as they are subject to task migration: if one's own city can host a call centre for a firm, there is a strong chance that the firm could shift to outsourcing to somewhere else if it gets a better deal, as the required skills are relatively transferable May The theoretical model for the Internet suggests that Internet Service Providers ISPs carry any and all Internet traffic equally, rather than being able to prioritize or block certain traffic or charge differential rates for different kinds of data.

User groups advocate for legislative measures to maintain this openness, arguing that it is necessary because users do not have true competition in the telecommunications area due to high switching costs and limited choice. These groups are concerned that the increasing attempts to link content with network service provision will result in users being required to sign up to a particular ISP in order to receive certain kinds of content.

Competing businesses might bundle exclusive access to particular content packages along with network access in order to extract the maximum revenue per user, because provision of basic network access alone has low-profit margins. This will result in a fragmentation of the network, as users will not generally purchase more than one access technology in order to access all possible content.

But the actual physical networks are owned primarily by private entities who interconnect via market transactions. This raises significant new challenges for governments in particular who are dealing not only with a global facility that is relatively impervious to national interests, but also with a private governance structure that has little incentive to consider the needs of poorer potential users not already connected.

In the early days of the Internet, the bulk of the bandwidth was owned by academic or research networks and the profit motive was not usually present, even though the networks only served a small elite. As the Internet becomes important infrastructure for communities around the world, serious challenges are developing for those seeking to expand Internet use in the public interest, when the infrastructure is privately owned.

Related to the issues arising from the ISP business model, there are also policy challenges emerging due to interconnection agreements between networks. Because the Internet is not a single network but a network of networks, the market transactions between these networks can have effects that seem unintuitive from a policy perspective.

If two networks within a country do not have a 'peering' arrangement, for cost reasons, traffic may end up travelling to quite remote physical destinations before returning to the very same city. This is akin to how smaller economies are served by airlines—for example, travel between small islands in the Pacific can be more expensive than around-the-world tickets with stops at major cities.

While many believe that a market economy will naturally lead to the establishment of Internet Exchange Points due to the economic efficiencies involved, there are indications in some highly developed countries that this is not the case. In Lao PDR, as Phissamay describes in this volume, the Lao National Internet Committee a government agency is investing in an exchange point to link traffic between the five ISPs and academic networks internally to help alleviate the current situation where national data will often be routed via Thailand or Singapore.

Security is an increasingly important concept covering a range of diverse areas with different political and social consequences. Security, dependability and trust are critical factors in stimulating the take-up of new ICT services. From the computer owned by the individual user which must be protected from hackers, to phishing scams, through to the use of ICTs for border control, the breadth of security threats is enormous.

Tarimo characterizes approaches to ICT security as increasingly focused on the concepts of availability, confidentiality and integrity:. What makes security so challenging is that these concepts are often in tension with each other. For example, the desire to make information always available entails the potential for compromise at the level of confidentiality. The existence of a potential threat does not always mean that it can be eliminated.

As Tarimo , p. Many security designs are poor because they are based on unrealistic threat models. The version of the standard International Organization for Standardization contains the following 12 main sections which constitute a useful outline of the issues that need to be considered in the area of information security:.

The questions of peering and neutrality are currently addressed in forums associated with Internet Governance. There can be broad or narrow definitions of Internet Governance. Increasingly, many actors favour a broader definition comprising the traditions, institutions and processes that determine how power is exercised, how stakeholders are given a voice and how decisions are made with respect to the Internet. The UN Working Group on Internet Governance WGIG differentiated clusters of issues related to Internet Governance that can be summarized as a access issues; b issues related to use of the Internet; and c issues around coordination of Internet resources.

One of the common myths about the Internet is that it is not governed Ang Technically, the Internet is coordinated rather than governed and it is true that there is no single place where the Internet and a coordinating agency can be identified. But in reality, there are a number of different areas where self or state regulation is in place and these are areas where the analysis of governance is useful.

For Asia Pacific, however, many feel that this is too little, too late, and alternate systems are needed to allow people to use their own languages online. The debate on IDNs remains polarized: there are those supporting universality, standardization, stability and control, on the one hand; versus those advocating for multiplicity, diversity, loose coordination and accountability to local language groups, on the other.

However, this 'universal' approach to IDNs raises much more complex technical, political and economic issues than developing a viable system for a particular language group. The major challenge will be to create viable mechanisms for mediating between these philosophies. While all agree that the goal is to ensure that the Internet remains a single, interoperable public facility, many increasingly believe that the right of all people to communicate in their own language must be maintained and expanded within this new medium.

The ready availability of relevant local language content is critical for the development of productive capacity in new media. One of the challenges in the early years of Internet diffusion lay in the dominance of the English language and US-centric content, with little relevance to many Asia Pacific Internet users.

Without locally relevant content in local languages, immediate uses of ICT for day-to-day activities may not be apparent. As Sarmad Hussain and Ram Mohan point out in their chapter on 'Localization' in this edition, there are many aspects to the technical issues in localization, including encoding, keyboard and input method, fonts and rendering, locale and local language interfaces. They state, 'Localization is conventionally defined or understood in a narrow sense—that is, it is usually limited to interface translation and other basic changes in the computing platform.

We suggest that localization has a broader scope that includes the entire range of script, speech and language technology to enable access to information for the end-user. There are a number of notable projects working to build local language computing capacity in Asia Pacific. In Nepal, the Dobhase project is currently building an engine for English-to-Nepali machine translation on the Web. Critically, they are also incorporating Nepali-to-English functionality to ensure that the Nepalese become Web producers and not just consumers of online content.

Other projects are happening at the platform level: in Bhutan there has been successful development of Dzongkha Linux, a localized operating system. Increasingly, regional ICT plans are focusing on content and cultural issues.

In the area of IPRs and patents, countries are increasingly aware of the ability of overseas companies to patent technologies and materials based on traditional products. ICTs play an important role in allowing this commercialization and publication. However, ICTs can also potentially provide a mechanism to mitigate against such exploitation. The government of India's Traditional Knowledge Digital Library initiative has built a database of over 36, Ayurvedic formulations and other traditional medicines see Noronha and Venniyoor, this volume.

It is hoped that this can work as a defensive mechanism against inappropriate patents that may be taken out on such materials, which might otherwise result in their becoming inaccessible for India's citizens. The question of viable financial models for local content companies remains troublesome in the Asia Pacific region, whether in the public or private sector.

It is easier for nations with a high number of cultural producers using common languages, such as English or Chinese, to engage in cultural exports. But for smaller nations, export audiences may not be as easy to reach, and local audiences are at risk from increased competition from global sources, which contribute to difficulties in language maintenance.

Because media policies are based on control of national borders, the global nature of Internet media poses many questions. Overall, these can be seen in the shift in national interest content policies from control and quotas to growing effective new content producers who are able to thrive in an international market.

Such initiatives are increasingly undertaken by economic development agencies pursuing the 'creative industries' rather than by cultural development agencies. This reflects the forum shifting that has occurred in the intergovernmental sphere, where media and entertainment are now more commonly discussed in the WTO as part of intellectual property agreements rather than in agencies such as UNESCO that have traditionally been the agency for the discussion of cultural issues.

Even in nations managing to achieve significant control over content, such as China's 'national firewall', the controls are a partial measure. New social media such as blogs and wikis provide a challenge to holistic media policy, as much of this cultural activity takes place informally, outside of organizations easily subject to policy initiatives.

However, these independent forms also allow an unparalleled opportunity for local content to emerge. Donny B. Ultimately, there is much for the region to gain by supporting the user-generated content platforms that reflect the diversity of all countries in the region. Perhaps the most important point about ICT regulation in Asia Pacific is this: Each country needs to develop its own set of culturally sensitive and consistent national priority policies. There is no 'best' approach to policy formulation and neither are there 'best' types of policies for dealing with specific aspects of ICT.

The differences in regulatory approaches in Asia Pacific are based largely on cultural as well as economic issues, such as the level of development of a country's ICT infrastructure, the penetration rates of different forms of ICTs, the emphasis people place on culturally unique content, the willingness to invest, and of course, two factors that greatly influences all of the above—per capita income and the level of education.

In economically developed countries with relatively mature ICT markets, such as Singapore, South Korea and Japan, infrastructure is a given and the build-out of future-proofed cutting-edge infrastructure and upgrading also tends to be a given. This is because the relatively high per capita income and critical mass of educated population able to use and fully benefit from ICTs tend to make new build-outs and massive capital commitments viable over a medium term for private operators.

In such countries, market forces and dynamics make it viable for private operators to consider build-outs without too much assistance from government, although public—private partnerships PPPs are being seen as a mutually advantageous option for infrastructure build-outs. The focus of policy and regulators in these countries tends to be less on the penetration rates of basic technology or technology accessibility and more on ensuring that the country is 'future-proofed' and that growth and sustainability of a competitive market are assured.

This is evident in Singapore, where the IT and telecoms regulator, the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, has a number of infrastructure and training programmes already running under an 'Intelligent Nation ' masterplan. In contrast, in many developing countries such as Mongolia, Vietnam, Bhutan and Nepal, regulators and policymakers are tasked with creating the conditions that would enable an active ICT market to come about. That said, developing countries in the nascent stages of ICT adoption, with less mature markets but with access to current technologies, may actually be at an advantage compared to developed countries.

This is because they may be able to 'leapfrog' some of the issues faced by the developed countries that can often distort or skew the ICT development process. For instance, developed markets may have had to make a tough political and economic choice when faced with the prospect of having to impose prohibitively high termination payments using taxpayers' money as a cost of dismantling tightly controlled or nationalized monopolies or oligopolies. Faced with such a prospect, a government might delay liberalization to ensure that the monopoly period granted runs out first.

Another perhaps more important issue is an outdated regulatory and legal framework. Developing countries may be at a relative advantage in so far as they can start from a 'fresh page' when it comes to developing regulatory and legal frameworks for ICT, especially since they can draw on the collective regulatory experience of developed countries to bolster and build their own expertise. Some developing countries have been able to use World Bank aid to consult professionals from countries with maturing regulatory regimes, such as Singapore, to get advice on structuring ICT regulation.

This allows them to gain insight into the issues and challenges involved in successfully regulating for growth—ensuring end-user protection without stifling industry growth by over-regulating—and to put in place a market-conducive legal and regulatory framework. For example, through World Bank funding, both Mongolia and Lesotho in Africa have tapped professionals from developed ICT markets to assist in the formulation of enabling and technology-neutral ICT regulation and legislation designed with the above goals in mind.

The policy and regulation focus in developing countries tends more toward increasing ICT penetration rates especially in rural and semi-urban areas. In nearly all developing countries, there are direct or indirect policies aimed at increasing the usage of ICT. So for instance, Bangladesh did away with import taxes and duties on computers in see Raihan and Habib, this volume , while Nepal is constructing a national optical fibre backbone for telecommunications partly with aid from the Indian government see Pandey and Shrestha, this edition.

Some developing countries are devising novel ways to grow their nascent ICT industries via indirect policies encouraging growth in technology, content and software development, especially to encourage innovation. This allows policy to have an influence in a space that is rarely regulated because it usually does not need to be—the space between infrastructure and end-user.

In Pakistan, as described by Jamshed Masood and Salman Malik in this volume, the government is engaged in a study to consider the viability of a government-backed venture capital fund that can provide subsidized funding for Pakistani ICT ventures. A further impetus is tax holidays granted to the income of ICT-focused venture capital funds. The continuing diffusion of ICTs and the emergence of the Internet as the communications medium of choice among many businesses and citizens has increased the pressure on government departments to provide information and services through electronic means.

This year, for example, Australia published Responsive Government: A New Service Agenda which recognizes the need to deliver a more coordinated and citizen-focused programme of activities and ensure that the capabilities to support this are present.

There is a large variety of e-government projects and obviously, many of these require substantial expertise and experience that may not be available in governments with low IT capacity. Thomas Parks points out that very few government decision-makers have direct experience with IT. One common problem is the lack of time and budget for software acquisition and implementation, systems integration and training.

Training in particular is vital and should thus be given as much budgetary allocation as the computer hardware itself. Examples of laudable ongoing e-government initiatives can be found even in the remotest Asia Pacific countries like Bhutan see Wangchuk and Pradhan, this volume and the Maldives see Ibrahim and Ahmed, this volume.

Bhutan is working on implementing initiatives in border management, passport control and civil registration, while the Maldives is in the process of interlinking government offices via a WAN network as a precursor to e-government services. These initiatives show how policymakers can lead by example to encourage the uptake and penetration of ICT.

Nearly all of the Asia Pacific countries surveyed in this edition of DirAP encourage the development of open source software. This is not surprising, given the relatively high cost of licensed software. Perhaps the most visible examples of policy favouring open source are in China and India: since governments in both countries have taken policy stances advocating open source over proprietary solutions.

The chink in Linux's armour, however, is usability. Especially in countries with a relatively low literacy rate, it is much harder to learn on Linux than on any other platform. Policymakers should encourage the development of easy-to-use localized user interfaces in open source platforms.

Regulators and policymakers in Asia Pacific need to grapple with the issue of how best to get local content online and make it accessible to the widest audience. This can have a direct bearing on penetration rates for ICT as more and more people may choose to come online or take up ICTs if the services are available in local languages and a range of local content is accessible.

As for a licensing model for open content, there is a discernible interest in Asia Pacific in the more flexible licensing models offered by the likes of the Creative Commons 6 and the Free Software Foundation FSF. Legislation on IT and digital signatures is now in place in a number of countries in the region. When enacting such laws, attention must be given to the principle of technology neutrality: the laws should be applicable regardless of the technology. With respect to approaches to applying and enforcing laws, the trend in developing ICT countries has been to follow the lead of the developed countries, which is to use a 'light touch' in ICT regulation—that is, regulators step in only when needed to correct imbalances in the market which the market cannot correct by itself for example, monopolistic or cartelized competition.

We have found that most of countries in the region that have enjoyed productive and sustained ICT growth share certain features in terms of regulatory approaches. These are:. The regulatory and policy environment of some countries has all of these features, while others have only some of the features and they may be present in varying degrees. The point is that their presence appears to encourage holistic and forward-looking policy that is capable of being both visionary and realistic in terms of implementation resource requirements.

A regulatory tool set containing some or all of these features depending on national circumstances can help to realistically address two key considerations facing the majority of Asia Pacific countries, namely:.

Managing the digital divide: 'Digital divide' refers to the gap that in many cases has opened up between citizens who are versed in ICTs and able to derive maximal benefit from using them and those not versed in ICTs due to lack of opportunity or inadequate infrastructure. These tasks require regulators and policymakers to engage with ICT industry and users when formulating policy and laws.

Coordination and consultation among the responsible government ministries and regulators, including those not directly responsible for ICT, are likewise essential. Singapore provides a good illustration of this model in practice.

For nearly all major policy decisions, the Singapore IDA www. Such coordination can inform the industry and users of the directions policymakers intend for ICT to take and it can give them a chance to adapt to it or, even better, to constructively influence it. Used properly, this collective decision-making process can make it easier to implement and get results from policies, as users feel the policies are cognizant of their interests.

Policymakers need to think through the objectives of a policy, law or regulation and assess whether its expectations are realistic in a national and regional context. If it is unclear how the expectations and goals can be reached, then steps to make those clear should be identified and implemented. This may seem simple, but there are ICT policies drafted as vision statements, without guidelines as to who needs to do what to achieve certain goals. For example, a government might come up with a point plan for putting a country on the ICT growth path but does not provide clear instructions to the concerned ministries and governmental bodies on what coordination is expected or should take place.

The regional angle can also come into play, especially if it can enhance a country's position on ICT issues, such as open source software development and content licensing. As for content licensing, as countries consider more flexible licensing models for open content, they may at the same time hesitate to have stringent standards thrust upon them, complete with obligations to adhere to digital rights management.

An example is Australia, where a number of critics have cried foul over the government's decision to bring its copyright legislation in line with that of the United States, as part of its obligations under a free trade agreement which came into force in Australia's modification of its copyright and intellectual property laws included adopting provisions rendering illegal any measure to circumvent technology protection measures TPMs , which in turn could put Australian copyright law at odds with the hitherto unassailable fair use access rights available to users of copyright materials see Green and Bruns, this volume.

In such cases, it may be possible for developing country regulators to collaborate across borders to agree on principles for flexible licensing and copyright protection and to then use this common ground to seek better terms when negotiating with countries with traditional licensing terms see Cardoza and Liang, this volume. This common stance could be used collectively when negotiating as a trade bloc or it could be used to strengthen an individual country's bargaining position when negotiating individually.

Such a policy stance could also be used to advantage by private entities negotiating content licensing terms even in the absence of a free trade or IPR-specific agreement. Forming a regional position also involves determining all of the governmental and non-governmental agencies that need to be co-opted to work together to bring high-level ICT policy to practical fruition.

First, the practical goals of the policy must be worked out. Second, who is empowered to do what is necessary to bring it to fruition should be identified. And third, the responsibilities towards achieving the policy goals should be delegated and a clear review process and schedule to monitor progress should be agreed upon. In short, political will is necessary to achieve ICT growth. That said, it must be clear that the process of guiding and implementing focused and coordinated policy implementation is the ICT policy goal that requires perhaps the greatest amount of political will.

It is frequently assumed that the introduction of more advanced ICT reduces opportunities for corruption. However, as Wescott notes, the reality is more complex. While ICT sometimes helps in combating corruption, it can also have no effect, or even provide for new corruption opportunities, including fraud. Indeed, unintended consequences are common in e-governance projects, even those that have positive outcomes. Consider the following related but contrasting examples.

Prior to the system, land valuation was performed in an entirely non-transparent system by assessors and agents and often required weeks and some additional payments. According to Subash Bhatnagar of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, 'Land registration can be completed in a few hours with the new system , whereas earlier it took 7—15 days' Parks , p.

However, researcher Solomon Benjamin has found that new land regimes can have very uneven effects. He notes that in Bangalore, the reduction of complexity in titles and centralization has made land much more open to larger purchasers.

Gentrification becomes an issue and the rights of the poor are made more tenuous when ICT enables companies and politicians to collaborate on larger 'real estate development projects', which may be good for a region's overall economy but result in the transfer of security away from the poor to the benefit of the wealthy.

After all, it is unrealistic to think that the poor will be trading on the ICT-enabled property market. While the discussion of ICTs is often posed in relationship to a 'knowledge economy' or an 'information society', the latter is usually taken to mean an advanced industrialized economy where service industries account for a very large proportion of the national economy. While this economic structure is identifiable in some nation states, there are very few roadmaps for how such an economic state can be achieved by developing countries and in this respect Asia Pacific is no different from the rest of the world.

There are five novel processes that characterize the Information Society in published literature. Identifying these processes provides an insight to the kind of policy responses required to prepare a population for this emerging society:. Global networks of finance capital are rapidly expanding, with economic advancement often based on the ability to shift informationalized capital between markets. This suggests the need for an international perspective and experience and a certain level of cosmopolitanism and outwardly-focused thinking among business owners.

Information itself is increasingly commodified. That is, there has been significant growth in the sales of 'information products' and media as a proportion of economic activity. This intensifies the need for literacy and for a critical capacity to assess information. Lifestyle and consumption choices increasingly define diverse social structures, requiring businesses to have a more sophisticated understanding of cultural issues and empathy with their chosen markets. Services are becoming an increasingly important economic category, suggesting a shift in the traditional policy focus on science and technology and increased emphasis on human disciplines such as the arts, humanities and social sciences.

There is the recognized emergence of significant 'informal' economies, which direct the flow of money outside of the formal market mechanisms where more open relationships take place. For example, most areas of the creative industries are heavily dependent on personal relationships. Skills in relationship development are necessary in more informal environments. As a representative and influential example, Manuel Castells' view is that there is a new mode of development, which he calls informationalism , that is driven by changes in the mode of capitalist production.

According to Castells , p. The result of these changes is the emergence of a 'skill bias' in changing employment opportunities under information-intensive economies, where jobs requiring manual labour are disappearing and new jobs require higher levels of information literacy and knowledge. Economists have put forward this notion of 'skill-biased technological change' to explain the growing overrepresentation of the least skilled workers in unemployment figures in many countries over the last two decades.

Greenan et al. This is important in ICT4D because regional and national aggregate statistics are usually used as evidence for ICT-induced economic gains but may in fact be coextensive with decreased economic well-being for a majority of people. While many jobs have been lost through ICT development, many new ones have been created. However, aggregate economic statistics such as job growth, usually used as evidence to support IT-supported economic gains, shed little light on the kinds of jobs that are created and lost in this transformation.

Where are the contemporary skills shortages that must be addressed? These are often difficult to map and little is known about changes in on-the-job training. Certification may often be simply for convenience, providing barriers to entry rather than reflecting true business need. There is widespread agreement that education is one of the most important issues in preparing people for the information society and in particular in adapting to technology-enabled networks.

These generally require a higher level of training and result in an individual who has a career in the ICT sector. These skills are gained through education but also often by the experience of the user working in a particular field. Chennells and van Reenen , p. Their work points to organizational changes made possible through ICT, such as 'delayering, decentralization and giving greater autonomy to workers' as the link between technology and higher skill requirements or professionalization.

While computer interfaces have not changed the knowledge that manufacturers must have about their production process, they do provide far more second-by-second information about the process that needs to be interpreted Shaw , p. Consequently, firms develop highly skilled job designs that reflect this need for interpretation and cognitive skills.

As Raihan and Habib point out in the Bangladesh chapter, a content-based approach gives a new direction to the global telecentre movement. Previously, a telecentre was essentially a technology learning centre and communication centre with an Internet connection and telephones which largely relied on the information processing capabilities of the end users. Now, telecentres are able to provide the core information and knowledge service for things such as market opportunities or information on the visits of aid organizations.

These functions are unthinkable without ICT. However, ICT use is not the goal but simply a means for the telecentre to become an effective social and informational hub. As this overview and the volume as a whole makes clear, the field of ICT4D is extremely diverse and it intersects with a wide range of other issues.

There are indications that ultimately, specialization and focus on the non-ICT parts of society remain critical for successful ICT4D projects. Nepal is positioning itself as a communications gateway between China and India, making use of its unique physical location between these two emerging superpowers. In the Maldives, the few software developers who have been successful have been largely focused on the hospitality industry, and they have managed to market point-of-sale and hospitality management software to other countries as well.

Policymakers have to take stock of their true situation and the resources available to them rather than following one-size-fits-all blueprints for ICT-enabled development. In developed ICT market countries, policy and regulation are concerned more with future-proofing. On the other hand, in developing ICT market countries, policy seems to be more concerned with getting up to speed than with future-proofing.

It is heartening to see a number of developing ICT market countries in Asia Pacific grappling with how to increase penetration rates and technology access, not just at the infrastructure level but also at the user level via targeted education, while at the same time trying not to over-regulate and maintaining a 'light touch'. The main challenges ahead are likely to be managing the digital divide and convergence. While we have noted features that effective regulatory and policy frameworks appear to possess, it is still the regulators and the people of a country with ground-level experience who would know best what works there.

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