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Cryptocurrency exchange with the lowest fees. Using an llc to buy cryptocurrency. How to buy cryptocurrency in brazil. Hundreds of people crowded into the park to hear and enjoy the band's music. The Mining Journal reporter stated that the band had decided to play for the picnic rather than travel to Newberry, Michigan one hundred miles east of Marquette , where they would have received a fee of one hundred dollars.

After the Marquette City Band played an outdoor con- cert on the balcony of the Marquette Hotel July 19, , many residents believed that they had heard the final concert of the band. Several members of the band had made plans to leave the Marquette area, but were convinced by city residents to remain through the season.

The carriage procession to the prison began at A. When the strike ended the Guard returned via special train. The Guard was met at the train depot by the Marquette City Band, which played several patriotic selections. Hoar; and Treasurer, Alfred Hibbard. David was retained as director.

The intention was partially realized as several winter performances were documented. The band and city officials with wives, friends and acquaintances traveled to the prison by horse-drawn sleigh. The trip was reported to have been enjoyable, but punctuated by the "usual chorus of feminine screams whenever the sleigh lurched to one side or the other. Song and Dance Sweet Little Daisy"..

The inac- tivity was believed to have been due to the variety of entertainment present in Marquette. The railroad furnished transportation to the concert. The parade proceeded from downtown to Meeske's Grove2 for the picnic. The entire event lasted the whole day of July 27, Longyear commented on the circus acts and the circus' famous band led by Antonio Liberati. Longyear reported were enjoyed by the Marquette audience. The parade, which included six area bands, was followed by a meagerly attended evening con- cert.

The final performance by the Marquette City Band was a dance given by G. Burtis on October 25, Burtis was moving his mill from Marquette to Munising, Michigan Spring, , and the dance, attended by over twelve hundred people, was considered to be a farewell ball. A Mining Journal reporter commented that the dancers would not leave until the twenty-six numbers of the "order of dances" were exhausted.

David, who resigned to become manager of the postal telegraph office. At the farewell ball the Marquette City Band played waltzes, airs, and a grand march with one hundred forty-eight couples in line. Although titles of the concert selections were not listed in The Mining Journal, Longyear stated that theatrical effects were utili ed to sensa- tionalize the music.

Longyear also reported that authen- tic thunderstorm sounds were used in one of the performed pieces. Mission Band met regularly at local residences, but no evidence of public performances exists. The band at this time was thought to be in excellent financial and musical condition, and was pre- paring for the summer concert season. Generally any type of band activity is documented in Marquette's newspaper, The Mining Journal.

A reporter mentioned in a Mining Journal article of June 6, , that a five-piece German band passed through Marquette. The band spent the afternoon and evening playing on the street corners probablyy for donations. The reporter also commented that "the music was a long ways from bad. July 4, , celebration in Marquette. The July 4 per- formance included a parade followed by a concert.

Longyear reported that the bands in attendance marched in the mud and their music was drowned out by the crowd's noise. Because there was no band in Marquette, organizations were forced to use other musical groups or hire out-of-town bands. For example, on Memorial Day May 30, the civic societies used a fife and drum corps to lead the annual parade.

The absence of a city band became so great that the St. The parade and concert were the only city band performances of The statue of Father Marquette was unveiled with the assistance of other city bands. The Calumet City Band was the official representa- tive of Marquette at the festivities. Summary The Bands' Functions During the period the Marquette bands' functions remained generally the same as they had been during the period The Marquette bands' per- formances consisted of the traditional practice of meeting trains, serenading political figures, playing for parades, and providing music for dances, masquerade balls or picnics.

In general the performances in Marquette during changed somewhat from a parade emphasis to that of a concert emphasis. Many more indoor and outdoor con- certs were given during the period than in the period The bands of Marquette had started to entertain through concerts rather than other social per- formances. Instrumentation In the Marquette bands' instrumentation was brass and percussion, but by early the bands had begun using woodwind instruments.

The Marquette City Band had clarinets in and also featured, on occasion, solos for saxophone, flute, vocalist or violin. The solos were accompanied by the full band. In general the brass instrumentation with added woodwinds prevailed during the period Performed Music During the period the Marquette bands per- formed music for parades, such as marches and popular tunes.

On concerts the bands played selections such as Civil War songs, national airs and patriotic tunes. The performance of selections such as these was attributed to the possibility of a Spanish-American War. Overtures, sacred selections and arrangements of operatic material were commonly used on the Marquette concerts.

Lastly, dance music was usually performed on concerts, at picnics, and at masquerade balls or dances. The period was considered to be a transi- tional period in regard to the bands' functions, instru- mentation, and performed music. The function was changing from marching to concert; the instrumentation was utilizing more woodwinds than in previous years; and more concert-oriented selections were being performed. At a band rehearsal on January 6, , the Marquette City Band's members elected the following officers: F.

The concert, a benefit for starving Cubans pre-Spanish-American War , included a local orchestra, vocal soloists, instrumental soloists, as well as the City Band. The parade, described by a Mining Journal repor- ter as a "patriotic march," started at one end of town, proceeded to the other end of town, and returned. This May 21, , Marquette parade was performed for a jubilant crowd that had turned out to support the Lake Superior Guards.

The parade, given on Decoration Day, May 28, , consisted of marches and patriotic music. During the band rehearsed twice weekly in the city hall, had a voting contest to choose the band's name, and gave benefit concerts for new uni- forms.

The Cadet Greys had twenty-one members, who had their own instruments, and consisted of the following instrumentation: two clarinets, one soprano saxophone, one alto saxophone, one tenor saxophone, one baritone saxophone, four cornets, three alto horns, two tenor horns, one baritone horn, one Bb bass, one tuba, two percussionists, and a drum major.

Latterall, vice- president; and G. On April 7, , the band played a short concert for the Marquette city council, to publicize the band's fund raising 1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a radio series, Historical Highlights, Vol. Another fund raising event occurred on May 20, On that date the Cadet Greys gave a Grand Ball, to raise 2 money for uniforms.

At the Grand Ball music was fur- nished by the Marquette Ideal Orchestra and admission was twenty-five cents, with supper extra. Kushner ' s encouragement that the author pursued a degree in the college teaching of music history. In addition, acknowledgement is due to the Marquette Historical Society for their cooperation and assistance in the location of primary documents; the Peter White Library for access to their microfilms of The Mining Journal ; and Copy Services of Marquette, Michigan, for their excellent reproductive services.

The Marquette City Band 44 3. Typical "Trap Drummer" of the Period circa 72 4. Jean Baptiste Society circa 74 5. Hanck's Drum and Bugle Corps 6. The Marquette Branch Prison Band circa 7. Our Boy's Band 8. The Marquette Finnish Band 9. The viii PAGE 9 findings of the study further supported the theory by Goldman that the development of the band in the United States proceeded along roughly parallel lines, in that the Marquette bands were influenced by the large city bands' functions, instrumentation and performed music.

The study established a parallel between the national band development and the Marquette band development. PAGE 11 4. Photographs of several bands when available were collected and presented in this study. PAGE 12 A secondary need for the present research was to compile and disseminate material on the history of the Marquette bands.

The study would provide information on the bands' significance to local history. Limit at ions The present study utilized the following limitations: 1. A historical dissertation by Payne entitled "History of the Platform in Marquette"-'was used to compile local historical sources.

PAGE 15 Marquette historical material books, articles and other documents were studied to provide a local historical basis for the literature review. Collection of Data The collection of data was accomplished by a methodical search through the local newspaper, The M l ing Journal. For purposes of this study only the years were searched for data on the Marquette bands.

There was also an analysis of several photographs of Marquette's bands and a survey of local historical books, magazines and documents. The search, collation, and analysis of material was conducted from June to June PAGE 16 Organization of the Remaining Chapters Chapter II contains a review of significant literature on the City of Marquette, including important events leading to the establishment of the city and its bands.

Forty years later the prospects of a water passage to the Pacific Ocean, wealth, fur trading, copper mining, and political comination of North America inspired additional exploration. The Chippewa Indian title to the Upper Peninsula was liquidated in following which the United States government made mineralogical , topographical and linear surveys. The information gathered in these surveys was iRichard F. PAGE 18 an important factor in the opening and settlement of the peninsula.

In prospectors "swarmed" into the area and in the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron range was established. In Amos Harlow, Peter White and other settlers from Worcester, Massachusetts, arrived at the present site of Marquette for the purpose of establishing an iron forge on the shore of Lake Superior.

Transportation played an important role in the development of the iron industry and the City of Marquette, In the United States Congress gave the state of Michigan , acres of public land to construct a canal between Lake Superior and Lake Huron.

Consequently, Marquette established and maintained a waterworks in PAGE 20 11 Other significant events important to the growth of Marquette included the building of a harbor lighthouse , the establishment of a United States government land office , the building of a Michigan Branch Prison in the city of Marquette , the construction of a hydroelectric plant , the establishment of a Coast Guard life-saving station , and the founding of an Upper Peninsula university, Northern State Normal School later changed to Northern Michigan University.

Chase stated that Marquette's growth was similar to other small American communities in the 2 late nineteenth century. After the turn of the century the city charter was established , as Marquette enjoyed increased activity in the mining industry. PAGE 21 12 The Mining Journal was the major Marquette source of national, regional and local news, thus was extremely important for the documentation of local history.

Early in The Mining Journal 's history the paper became known as the "greatest industrial paper in the peninsula. Swineford, owner of a Negaunee newspaper, Mining and Manufacturing News , moved his newspaper plant to the Marquette area and reestablished a Marquette paper.

Swineford, an opinionated editor, was twice elected mayor of Marquette, was elected to the Michigan legislature, and was appointed Governor of the Alaskan Territory In Swineford sold The Mining Journal to J. Bryant also stated that amateur bands were formed by municipal groups, manufacturing companies, colleges, and universities. Antoine Jullien influenced Patrick Gilmore, who by had organized his own professional band.

Schwartz, Bands of America , p. PAGE 25 16 gained recognition as a cornet soloist and director of several Boston area bands, Gilmore attracted many excellent musicians to his bands. Th,e first mammoth festival, a five-day National Peace Jubilee Boston, , consisted of over 10, musicians performing in orchestras, choruses and bands.

Dwight, Dwight's Journal of Music , July 3, , p. The 22nd Regiment Band contributed to the national band movement in regards to instrumentation, performance excellence, and repertoire. In a Harper's Weekly article, Mead commented that the Sousa band ". PAGE 27 18 Sousa's new band, which was an immediate success, originally consisted of forty-nine players, who were auditioned personally by Sousa.

The success of Sousa and his band was mentioned in many documents, e. Paul E. PAGE 28 19 many people, or held in greater popular affection, than this great American concert band. In the smaller cities the band averaged twenty-five men each, while in small rural towns the band numbered from twelve to eighteen 3 members.

By the year the number of United States' bands had doubled, but had begun to decline after PAGE 29 20 The amateur or professional town bands paved the way for the introduction of public school bands. By the professional big bands, the public school bands and numerous jazz bands had replaced the town bands as the major entertainment function for the community. The function of the Civil War band consisted of performing for the armies on the march , playing serenades at the evening's encampments for the officers and men, serving as medics during the battles, and playing for ceremonies or dress parades.

Mead commented that the bands of dispensed both the popular and higher class music of the day. PAGE 30 21 that the bands served a necessary educational function, in that "they provided music to remote sections, where the inhabitants were unable to hear them at first hand, and without their local band, they would perhaps never hear them at all. The bands were also conspicuous features of public parades and processional events.

PAGE 31 22 In contrast, the bands after the turn of the century to the 's provided entertainment in the form of concerts. Ins t rument at ion In most cities and towns had one or more bands. The large city bands augmented their instrumentation with the following: double reeds oboe, English horn, bassoon , alto clarinets, saxophones, trumpets, euphoniums, timpani, and additional numbers of the other instruments.

In the band's instrumentation included the antoniophone, the surrasophone , the helicon tuba, the orpheon, and the euphonium-trombone. Gilmore, for all of his experimentation, had established the concert band in the United States. In contrast, the average band of was composed of twenty-five percent woodwinds, iRichard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band , p. PAGE 34 25 sixty-three percent brass, and twelve percent percussion.

His last band utilized sixty-four percent woodwinds, thirty-two percent brass, and four percent percussion. Many of the professional bands performed a variety of music designed to entertain audiences, while marching bands played only marches or spirited tunes. Barnum, performed fantasies, popular pieces, quadrilles, waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, schot t isches , tarantelles, galops and arrangements of classical pieces. Jullien the composer performed many of his own compositions on the concert tour, as well as selections by American composers such as William Henry Fry.

Susanna , and Nellie Was a Lady. The town bands emulated the larger bands in regard to music programming. Summary Richard Franko Goldman, son of the famous conductor Edwin Franko Goldman, wrote that "the development of the band in the United States proceeded along roughly parallel iTheodore M.

PAGE 37 28 lines. In the 's the band played for parades, excursions, and social events, but by usually performed only concerts. The bands' instrumentation evolved from the brass bands of the 's to the predominately woodwind instrumentation of the later Sousa bands. Most of the smaller city bands followed the models set by the larger professional organizations.

The bands of the discussed period filled a need in r the musical life of the community by providing the only v live music in places that could not maintain orchestras or other musical ensembles. The need for major entertainment subsequently led to the formation of local bands.

Apparently bands played an important role in the community, performing for dances, picnics and public functions, but local historians had overlooked their importance. The major PAGE 39 30 question of the majority of the studies was, How widespread was the band movement?

From the number of major documented performances by Marquette bands and the size and nature of the Marquette concert audience, there was reason to analyze and interpret why the Marquette area was conducive to the formation of bands. The reasons, as stated, formed the justification for the present research.

During a group of German settlers, of whom there were quite a few from pioneer days , formed o the German Silver Cornet Band. Boyer indicated that the group was funded by the village Marquette and rehearsed in a room of the old courthouse. The band gave several concerts, one from Ripley's Rock lower harbor--Mar que t te.

On January 11, , a concert was given by the Gesang Verein. The concert, although not well attended because of poor publicity, provided good singing and "exhiler at ing" instrumental playing. The Mining Journal reporter commented, ".

The fellow who can sling a drumstick with Spence has to get up early in the morning. PAGE 42 33 Other bands were formed to provide entertainment during No "' other mention of this particular band was present. Nitroglycerine was used in lieu of a cannon. Celebrations of holidays and special events in Marquette usually consisted of the organization of special trains to provide transportation to the city for the festivities.

Advertisement, The Mining Journal , February 5, , p. At lakeside the band boarded the steamer Michigammee and accompanying barge for a trip to a nearby island. The band entertained the guests throughout the trip. Marquette was known as a health resort, especially for sufferers of hayfever. Many tourists traveled to the city and stayed for one to two months. Many activities were available, including horse racing, camping, bicycling, dances, gambling houses, and band 1 "The Fourth," The Mining Journal , July 11, , P.

PAGE 44 35 concerts. In a company of the Michigan national guard called the Chasseurs gave a drill, ball and reception in recognition of Washington's Birthday. The ball was held at the Cozzins Hotel, with music provided by the Marquette Band. The editor also stated that there were enough musicians in Marquette, and the Chasseurs should have a band of their 3 own.

J The period was somewhat bleak in regard to organized band activities. Bands usually played for dances of the local societies and were mentioned in newspaper articles on several occasions as performers of excellent music. During the month of January, , a Mr. Boyer reported that the town "wits" immediately yelled out that the p. PAGE 46 37 poor music was more than the horse could stand. The Clifton Hotel had negotiated and hired the Chequamegon orchestra and band to do a series of outdoor concerts.

One of the outdoor concerts July 4, featured the Chequamegon orchestra and band. Although no specific titles of selections were listed in a Mining Journal article, the program consisted of several band compositions including a piccolo solo, a cornet solo, and a clarinet solo, all accompanied by the band. All bands participated in a parade followed by a short concert presentation, The Calumet Band was believed to have been the superior organization due partially to the fact that they had more practice.

Homire, was improving rapidly and providing the city of Marquette with a series of summer concerts. During the summer of three musicians from the steamer Quebec , which had recently sunk in the Marquette harbor, stayed a brief period in the Marquette lM Chequamegons , " The Mining Journal , July 4, , P.

Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. The band, known as the Calumet Eureka Band, was a younger version of the Calumet City Band that was known for its o excellence. As was indicated in the photograph of the Calumet Band Fig. PAGE 50 41 Figure 1. PAGE 52 43 guests , dinner music and another march to end the festivities.

On trips the bands furnished lusic. Upon arrival the band generally gave a concert and then participated in the merriment. During there were three separate bands performing in Marquette. PAGE 53 44 drum, one bass drum, and one cymbal player. The Marquette City Band 11 After greeting the guests at the Marquette train depot, the Marquette City Band fifteen members , reception committee, and guests moved in procession to the Casino, where the dance program began.

The program was lengthy and consisted of waltzes, scho t t is ches , marches PAGE 54 45 and quadrilles. Schottische B. Owen, along with his musicians, were said to be a pleasant body of men, who fulfilled their duties "perfectly. The band also played with other bands in parades and events such as picnics, baseball games a ,d county fairs.

According to the editor of The Mining Journal , A. Swineford, the Marquette City Band had an excellent reputation during Swineford, The Mining Journal , April 14, , p. PAGE 56 47 Mrs. The Marquette City Band played a few selections so well that nearby neighbors invited the band to dinner. Concerts were scheduled throughout the week with the Marquette City Band and the Champion City Band as the main attractions. Political rallies were events at which bands could perform. The Marquette City Band escorted a politician!

Swineford reported that the Republican party held a lobster bake on November 17, , at which every Republican? Swineford, The Mining Journal , November 17, , p. The c vocal solos were enthusiastically received, as encores were requested. The Rifles had arranged for an exhibition drill performance by visiting drill teams and, as was the custom, the Marquette City Band led the uniformed procession to the depot. Longyear, The Mining Journal , January 19, , p.

Several bids submitted from other cities were lower, but the band argued that the city had helped them raise the money, so the home firm should receive the bid. The Marquette City Band made a humanitarian gesture when they performed a sacred concert for the benefit of the victims of the Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood of 1 J.

On June 22, , the band played for the commencement of the St. Additional selections included an overture and two concert pieces. In the Marquette City 1 J. PAGE 63 54 to accept the challenge, they Calumet would play three pieces more difficult than the composition Crown of Victory.

Mesnard," The Mining Journal , August 24, , p. PAGE 64 55 contest was one of the biggest achievements of the band, since they won second place. The competition, between older bands with a greater reputation , had a large number of entries. A concert given by the Marquette City Band on August 24, , was attended by many local residents. PAGE 65 56 The Marquette City Band spent the remainder of with performances that included a Labor Day celebration, parade and concert; a state fair, in Marquette; and a final concert on November 27, J The band had evidently been the brunt of many jokes around the city.

Swineford, The Mining Journal , April 21, , p. PAGE 66 57 Mining Journal editor, in an article on April 21, , suggested that the band's leader was experienced and able to produce quality music. They performed a march as they paraded toward the bandstand.

Swineford, The Mining Journal , April 21, p. In March ,of the Queen City Cornet Band began raising funds to purchase a new set of instruments. P1 The Mining Journal , November 17, , p. The bands also played music for public social activities such as picnics and dances. Other performances consisted of traveling to Upper Peninsula cities and performing on the trains, and performing for conventions or tournaments. The performances were usually for the benefit of dignitaries or visitors for special celebrations.

Ins t rumen tat ion In the early part of the researched period the Marquette bands consisted of brass and percussion PAGE 69 60 instruments. The bands were expanded to fifteen or sixteen players, with mid-range brass instruments also being used. Performed Music The Marquette bands performed for m ly different functions during the period The music consisted of marches for parades and concerts, patriotic music for concerts or special holidays, sacred music for concerts, and arrangements of popular songs as well as solo selections for a variety of inst ruments.

Music for dances during the period usually included popular dance "tunes" such as schot t isches , quadrilles, galops, polkas and Virginia reels. The bands' instrumentation expanded PAGE 70 61 from about ten musicians to sixteen with brass instruments predominating.

A variety of music was performed with concerts, dances and parades as the bands' major f unc t ions. As in previous years the band provided music for different societies, organizations and city government functions. The Marquette City Band's director, William Sanders, conducted the band for the first time of on March 20 This performance, a meeting of the Knights of the Maccabees, consisted of only three selections. For example, on April 5, , the Odd Fellows engaged the band to play for their annual celebration, which included meeting the train at the depot, a parade and 2 picnic.

Occasionally the Marquette City Band performed for favors. The band then opened the official exercises with a s:. PAGE 73 64 performed many waltzes of the time. The City of Marquette had two bandstands in Heinecke Walt zes The Mining Jo urnal's editor suggested that private citizens "open their private purse strings.

Because of the band's summer performance schedule, the band members could not earn as much pay as other Marquette citizens. Since most concerts, parades a' d picnics were in the summer months, the bandsmen would have to leave work. The concert, attended by over six hundred people, was a welcome success. In addition the concert featured Charles Geill, who performed a clarinet solo followed by an encore. Geill was described by The Mining Journal 's editor as an artist of rare ability.

An official schedule listed several Marquette City Band concerts and an annual parade. The Marquette City Band was billed as the official Fifth Regiment Band, the billing indicative of a military affiliation for th is event The Fourth of July celebration, which attracted five thousand visitors from out of the city, continued into the evening. PAGE 77 68 concert at a local art show. Grey evidently improvised new dance combinations so interesting that the band found it difficult to keep playing.

Masquerade balls were popular in The last "grand" masquerade ball of the season March 1, offered prizes for the best costumes and dancers. The Opera House hired road plays, musicals, orchestras, and other entertainment.

PAGE 79 70 which included a parade and concert. The celebration was mentioned in Houghton's newspaper, but the Marquette City Band was not recognized. Longyear, editor of The Mining Journal , retorted that "our band" could still play with the best of them and should have received a mention in the paper. Celebrates," The Mining Journal , June 11, , p. The concert was postponed until May 5, , and was performed in the Marquette Opera House.

During that year the director of the Hughes Orchestra formed a band from the members of his orchestra and led the traditional IFirst Masquerade of the Season," The Mining Journal , January 28, , p. February 11, , p. At the parade the band's instrumentation consisted of two clarinets, three cornets, three alto horns, two tenor horns baritones , one trombone, two basses, one snare drum and one bass drum.

PAGE 83 74 Figure 4. David recruited members, rehearsed the Marquette City Band during the winter'of , and also participated in other musical activities; i. The concert, which began with the overture L ' Amazone by Laurendeau, consisted of choral, vocal and instrumental solos and full band selections. A Mining Journal reporter indicated that the people of Marquette were pleasantly surprised at the excellent caliber of performance since 1" The New Band Leader," The Mining Journal , December 2, , p.

The decision to play for the picnic indicated that the band had allegiance to the City of Marque t te. After the Marquette City Band played an outdoor concert on the balcony of the Marquette Hotel July 19, , many residents believed that they had heard the final concert of the band. Several members of the band had made plans to leave the Marquette area, but were convinced by city residents to remain through the 3 season.

PAGE 88 79 the band's major intent was to perform throughout the winter months in addition to their regular summer schedule. Waltz "Sounds from Erin" PAGE 89 80 generally remained inactive until the summer. The inactivity was believed to have been due to the variety of entertainment present in Marquette. The parade proceeded from downtown to Meeske's Grove 2 for the picnic. July 15, , p. The parade, which included six area bands, was followed by a meagerly attended evening concert.

Although titles of the concert selections were not listed in The Mining Journal , Longyear stated that theatrical effects were utili e d to sensationalize the music. Longyear also reported that authentic thunderstorm sounds were used in one of the performed 2 pieces. The program included a flute solo by Hoelscher, a cornet solo by Young, a saxophone solo by Charles Geill, and a violin solo by the orchestra's director, a Mr.

PAGE 92 83 Mission Band met regularly at local residences, but no evidence of public performances exists. The band at this time was thought to be in excellent financial and musical condition, and was p"eparing for the summer concert season.

The band spent the afternoon and evening playing on the street corners probably for donations. The July 4 performance included a parade followed by a concert. PAGE 94 85 , at the society's annual festival. The Calumet City Band was the official representative of Marquette at the festivities. The Marquette bands' performances consisted of the traditional practice of meeting trains, serenading political figures, playing for parades, and providing music for dances, masquerade balls or picnics.

PAGE 95 86 In general the performances in Marquette during changed somewhat from a pande emphasis to that of a concert emphasis. Many more indoor and outdoor concerts were given during the period than in the period The bands of Marquette had started to entertain through concerts rather than other social performances.

The Marquette City Band had clarinets in and also featured, on occasion solos for saxophone, flute, vocalist or violin. Performed Music During the period the Marquette bands performed music for parades, such as marches and popular tunes. Lastly, dance music was usually performed on concerts', at picnics, and at masquerade balls or dances.

The period was considered to be a transitional period in regard to the bands' functions, instrumentation, and performed music. The concert, a benefit for starving Cubans p re-S panish-Amer ican War , included a local orchestra, vocal soloists, instrumental soloists, as well as the City Band. The parade, described by a Mining Journal repor ter as a "patriotic march," started at one end of town, proceeded to the other end of town, and returned.

During the band rehearsed twice weekly in the city hall, had a voting contest to choose the band's name, and gave benefit concerts for new uniforms. Latterall, vicepresident; and G. On April 7, , the band played a short concert for the Marquette city council, to publicize the band's fund raising 1 Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a radio series, Historical Highlights , Vol.

PAGE 91 activities. The Cadet Greys were raising money to purchase additional instruments, new uniforms and music. At the Grand Ball music was furnished by the Marquette Ideal Orchestra and admission was twenty-five cents, with supper extra. In February of the band held a special meeting at which they planned the year's performances.

On February 27, , an editor of The Mining Journal stated that the Cadet Greys were a rare occurrence in the band field. September 4, 18 98, p. October 29, , p. The procession was held in honor of two local citizens who died in the Spanish-American War. The ball, held at Fraternity Hall, featured Muhlbaur's orchestra. A special attraction of the ball was a cakewalk, which was performed for the first time in Marquette.

On that date the band performed patriotic music for a parade honoring deceased veterans. PAGE 94 proceeded through the city to the opera house, where a short concert was performed. A Mining Journal reporter mentioned that hundreds attended the event. During the summer of the Cadet Greys performed for many different functions. On June 9, , the band played for the Maccabees annual summer convention. The convention performance included meeting the visiting Maccabees at the train depot, escorting them to the Fraternity Hall, and marching in an afternoon parade.

PAGE 95 planning for an August, , firemen's tournament. Later in the day of July 4 the Cadet Greys performed a patriotic concert, which concluded with pecial daylight fireworks. The tournament, which included over 3, visitors, consisted of a large parade, competitive events, and an evening concert.

Each band accompanied its respective city's firemen units. On August 23, , the Cadet Greys performed a concert on the lawn of a local resident, S. The concert was well attended but curtailed because of rain. PAGE 96 for lunch. On the program were selections by the band, a magic act by G. Fox, and a showing of pictures of the Cuban War.

Most of the performances were parades for different organizations, short concerts or political rallies. A special excursion train traveled to Michigamme from Marquette with five hundred Marquette residents and the Cadet Greys. The Cadet Greys performed in a parade in Marquette on June 25, The parade was organized for the St. John Baptiste Quarter Century Jubilee. PAGE 98 On the streets the band played marches, popular tunes, and dances designed to arouse the citizens' interest in the festivities.

The final performances of for the Cadet Greys were the annual Marquette Labor Day parade of September 2, , and performances at local political rallies on October 27, At the rallies the Cadet Greys played music appropriate to the respective political parties.

The functions included music for skating at the new ice rink on January 3, , a masquerade ball at the ice rink on March 23, , and a parade for :. Patrick's Day on March 24, At the St. Peter's church, where a mass was given.

On May 22, , Russell reported that the Cadet Greys needed financial help. PAGE 99 band had twelve pieces, was badly disorganized, and would fail without local support. Russell further stated that many people of Marquette believed that "every wide 2 awake community should boast and support a band. During the remainder of and various Marquette organizations hired out-of-town bands for their social events. On one occasion the St. On August 21 and 22, , the Negaunee band was hired to perform at a veterans' function.

The Calumet Band, led by Colonel A. Cox, performed several concerts and parades during During the period one attempt was made to reorganize a Marquette band. Charles Hanck, a local percussionist a band leader, proposed that the city support a band geared to marching only. The Drum and Bugle Corps consisted of the following instrumentation: four bugles, thirteen field drums, one bass drum, one color guard member American flag bearer , and one drum major. PAGE The photograph below circa was taken on the steps of the Marquette County Court House.

The band rehearsed and performed at the prison for various functions. A photograph of the Prison Band Fig. Funding for the three concerts was provided through donations from Marquette citizens and businesses. PAGE talk about. Russell also stated that the leader would bring five or six leading musicians to Marquette to perform in the band, while other players could be recruited in the city.

On September 19, , a Mining Journal reporter commented that the paper had received letters in support of a city band. The Mining Journal had also received a letter from a Calumet area band of fourteen players who would be willing to move to Marquette if only the Marquette residents would support a band. The dance, held at Fraternity Hall, was well attended and a Mining Journal reporter stated that the bandsmen wore their new uniforms, which had been purchased in During January of the band performed three times and had earned a good reputation.

A Mining Journ. The editor subsequently mentioned that one band member still had no work, and anyone that could hire him would "confer a singular favor on the band by doing so. PAGE music that was popular, and had purchased a great deal of that new dance music during the first part of the year.

The city band played for their first parade of at the annual Marquette Memorial Day celebration on May 28, The performance was the last time that William Sanders directed the band. Simmons succeeded Sanders as band director. The final public performance of the city band during was a series of concerts at the Marquette County Fair on September , At the serenade Alstyn, president of the city band since its reorganization, was presented with a gold watch fob.

On October 15, , a reporter mentioned that the band, under the direction of Charles Geill, was in need of a bass horn. Alstyn," The Mining Journal , October 8, , p. For example, during the summer of the Ishpeming Light Guard Band was hired to play a series of Saturday night outdoor concerts at Presque Isle Park. The Corps, which consisted of twelve field drums, one bass drum, four bugles, and one color bearer, performed for parades and patriotic events.

The performance at the fair consisted of a parade and concert. On April 21, , the Corps ordered new uniforms from a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, manufacturer. A Mining Journal reporter described the new uniforms as "dark, bottle-green wool, with black -'-"City Brevities," The Mining Journal , July 1", , p.

PAGE braid. On May 21, , a benefit dance was given to raise money for the Corps' new uniforms. Marie, Michigan, firemen's tournament,'' played for the Marquette Fourth of July parade in The Marquette City. After the demise of the traditional city band in Marquette , Hanck's Drum Corps performed for parades, patriotic events and an occasional exhibition concert.

In the early part of the discussed period the Marquette City Band had only one woodwind a clarinet , nine brass instruments, and two percussion. In the middle part of the period the twentyone piece Cadet Greys had six woodwinds, including two clarinets and four saxophones, twelve brass instruments and two percussion.

Later in the period the "new" city band performed with only one woodwind a piccolo , eleven brass instruments and two percussion. Hanck's Drum Corps further changed the instrumentation during the period to four brass bugles and percussion. Performed Music The selections performed during the period were directly related to each band's particular function. The early Marquette City Band, playing primarily for parades and concerts, performed marches, arrangements of classics, and popular tunes.

On the other hand, the Cadet Greys and the "new" city band performed dance music and funeral music in addition to parade and concert selections. During Hanck's Drum Corps played marches, patriotic music, bugle calls and street beats for the many parades in which they participated.

The bands served a variety of functions, played numerous selections of music, and had radically different instrument at ion. The out-of-town bands were hired to perform in Marquette because there was not an organized band in the city during early Luke's Hospital. The Corps was now under the direction of Frank Wentworth, since the death of former director Charles Hanck. Hanck had established the Corps several years earlier but died of diabetes at age thirtyseven on February 28, In the Corps gave a benefit dance on May 19, , with music furnished by -'-"Charles J.

The uniforms, described in a Mining Journal article, were brown "rough rider" suits with leggings and military hats. Klamert, organized a boys band. By April 17, , the band had grown to twenty members and consisted of the following instrumentation: seven cornets, four tenor horns, three trombones, two baritones, one tuba, one snare drum and one bass drum. The photograph of Our Boy's Band Fig.

PAGE Figure 7. The photograph of the band Fig. In January of a Min in g J ourna l reporter mentioned that the Marquette Finnish Band had been without a leader for some time. The reporter also stated that W. E k 1 u n d , of Quincy , Massachusetts, had been hired for tne position as director of the band. Eklur , the reporter wrote, had served as the director of several Finnish bands in the eastern part of the United States, and had been chosen from a list of six applicants.

These bands were sponsored by local merchants, fraternal societies, or social hall associations. One of the local bands, Klamert's Home Band, was organized in early PAGE R. A reporter described the parade as a rather elaborate procession that included the Marquette Naval Reserve, the Boy Scouts, and children with flags, in addition to Klamert's Home Band.

In June of Klamert's Home Band performed on two occasions. The first occasion, a picnic for the Knights of Colum 1 s on June 21, consisted of a parade from a 3 local church to the picnic grounds. The secon performance in June of was a parade in observance of Midsummer's Day. This parade, sponsored by the St. King Grand Medley-Overture. Barnhouse March. Vereechken Evening Serenade" A virta " arch "Teutonia".

The photograph on the following page Fig. May 6, , p. The Liberty Hall Band circa Another band that performed in Marquette during was sponsored by the League of Pythias, a local society. Tallbacka and consisted of the following instrumentation: two clarinets, four cornets, three alto horns, three trombones, two baritone: one tuba and two percussion. A local theatre, the Delft Theatre, sponsored a Marquette band and orchestra.

The Min ing J ournal reporter stated that the Delft Band and Orchestra had some of the best talent in the city. One of the few performances in was a procession and concert for the departing Army recruits on May A Mining Journal reporter noted that an experienced trombone player moved into the city and organized a band.

The only public performance 'for the new Marquette band consisted of marching in the annual Labor Day parade on September 2, A Minin g Jour nal reporter stated that the dark blue coat was similar to an Army officer's "undress" coat, with a wide band of silk braid up the front, on either edge, and around the neck.

The uniform also had a Liberati-style cap but was considered by the reporter as "plain but dressy. In early the Marquette City Band once again disbanded. The new Marquette City Band, composed of twelve musicians, was reorganized as a band and orchestra, both used at winter dances.

At the winter dances the band played the "two-steps" while the orchestra played the "waltzes. In addition to the dance of February 4 , , the band played on the Memorial Day program of May 30 and also performed a concert at Presque T sle Park on July The July 12 concert was the last Marquette City Band performance of In August of the Marquette City Band once again reorganized.

No other performances of the band were documented. The first performance in was a concert on Memorial Day, May At the Memorial Day concert the Marquette mayor presented gifts of appreciation to the Marquette City Band's drum major and director. The drum major, George Hager, was presented with a white fur drum major's cap, and the director, J. Russell professed that the only way Marquette could have a good band was to subsidize a band.

During there were simply not enough engagements to make the band profitable without subsidization. For example, in the Marquette City Band hired different orchestras to provide music for each dance they sponsored. Orchestras hired for the dances sponsored by the band included Christian's Orchestra, the Cloverland Five, and Mrs. Whitman's Orchestra. Other performances included five well-attended concerts at Presque Isle Park, or Lakeside Park, during the summer months.

During the Marquette City Band performed fewer times than in At the Opera House ceremonies, the Marquette City Band played patriotic music for the opening and closing. An additional summer performance, a June 2, , concert to raise money for new uniforms, was given at the Northern Normal School auditorium, drew a large crowd, and included the following selections : 1','City Brevities," The Mining Journal , July 12, 1 9 2 1 , p.

Hayes "Swedish Love Song". PAGE Overture. Blakley The years were a period of declining activity for the Marquette City Band. The band performed for the annual Marquette Memorial Day parade, each of the three years, and a parade sponsored by the Knights of Columbus on May 31, There were no performances of the Marquette City Band during the years 19 2 The issue consisted of a tax question that Marquette's citizens would vote on.

The voters had to decide whether the City Commission had authorization to appropriate city money for the maintenance of a city band. Gathering," The Mining Journal , May 26, , p. Rehearsals and sectionals were given on Monday and Wednesday of each week until the first public concert of June 15, The reviewer stated that the band displayed amazing sound for two months of rehearsals. On July 13, , the band played a concert of light and popular selections.

Zamecnik Overture. W Balfe Sacred "Largo" G. June 14, , p. Hall Musical comedy The concert schedule consisted of weekly concerts, beginning on June 28, , and ending on August 30, On these concerts director Martin Johnston programmed a variety of music which included marches, semic las s ical selections, and arrangements of popular tunes.

August 16, , p. Fred Luscomb Overture to the Opera.. Edward MacDowell American S ke t c h. PAGE other Marquette bands; i. The conterapoary "concert band" instrumentation was being used in the Marquette City Band in and Performed Music The music performed by the Marquette bands was also a direct result of the bands' functions.

The early bands usually performed marches, arrangements of classics, and dance music, while later bands performed fewer marches, more popular arrangements, and more arrangements of classics. The early bands' brass predominance limited the kind of arrangements that the bands could perform. The Marquette bands in the later part of the studied period performed a greater variety of music that was more difficult than the music of early bands. What was the instrumentation of the Marquette band s?

The Mining Journal Marquette, Michigan was the major source for the s tudy. The data were collected by 1 a methodical search through the local newspaper, The Mining Journal ; 2 an analysis of photographs of several Marquette PAGE bands during the period ; and 3 a survey of local historical books, magazines and documents. The study consisted of 1 a review of significant historical literature on the city of Marquette; 2 a historical account of the United States' band movement; and 3 a chronological documentation of the bands that were organized in Marquette during the period , the functions for which the Marquette bands performed, the instrumentation of the Marquette bands, and the music performed by the bands.

For example, in the 's and 's bands such as the Marquette German Brass Band or the Marquette Cornet Band played for social events including train excursions, dances, picnics and local parades. In addition to the performances for social events, the bands of the 's and 's also played an occasional concert.

By the 's the Marquette bands still played for social events, but had begun to perform more of a concert function. For example, during the 's the Marquette City Band performed regular concerts on hotel balconies and local bandstands. By the early 's bands such as the Cadet Greys performed frequently at dances, played concerts, and marched in many parades. Dances during the 's were popular, events and band music was the "rage" in America.

During the period Marquette's bands; e. By other Marquette bands; e. PAGE In the 's the Marquette City Band had almost stopped performing for dances and picnics, since local orchestras had begun providing music for those functions. By the Marquette City Band's function had changed to primarily a concert orientation. During the band performed many summer concerts, the programs of which provided a variety of musical styles to the audiences. During the summer concerts by the Marquette City Band were considered as the major function of the band.

Comparispp, to the United States' Band Movement From the 's to the 's the bands' popularity in the United Stat es increased, due primarily to the fact he that other entertainment modes radio, recordings had not become widespread. Throughout the United States tl bands' function was providing music for concerts, dances, parades, picnics, and other social activities.

The band trend in Marquette, Michigan, essentially followed the lead of the larger city bands in that the Marquette bands provided music for similar functions. The Marquette bands, however, were somewhat behind the national movement of bands, probably because of the geographical location of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, PAGE the Upper Peninsula's weather, and transportation into the Marquette region. Inst r ume n tat ion Marque tt e's Band s During the period Marquette's bands under went subst tial change.

Gradually during the period other Marquette bands added woodwind instruments to their ensembles. Subsequently, in the Marquette City Band's instrumentation consisted of an equal number of woodwind and brass instruments. The balance between brass and woodwind instruments was necessary because of the symphonic nature of the concert literature.

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But proponents of cryptocurrency argue that the role of crypto in the criminal underworld has been exaggerated. Under the CRS the Chinese authorities, for example, could demand that the Hong Kong authorities hand over information on any Chinese citizen residing in Hong Kong — except for property information. For this reason, property, rather than cryptocurrency is still the preferred way for people with guilty consciences to launder money. The Swiss canton of Zug and the US state of Wyoming have both passed laws to accelerate the trade in cryptocurrency.

In Zug you can pay parking fines in bitcoin. The Wyoming law gives cryptocurrency a distinct legal status alongside cash, bonds and property. Those who advocate the wider adoption of cryptocurrency argue that it makes perfect sense for a digital, global economy to have a digital, global means of exchange.

Once a major regulator defines a workable regulatory regime for trading cryptocurrency, others will probably follow for fear of losing out. During the bitcoin bubble the global economic establishment — from George Soros to Mark Carney — told us, perhaps with some justification, that bitcoin was a serious threat to financial stability and that sensible investors should stay away. But, for all the frenzied speculation throughout the second half of , we need to stand back and ask what the world would be like if — just as when cowrie shells gave way to metal coins — the nature of money were fundamentally to change.

The fact is that most major banks have started to trade cryptocurrencies to some degree and bitcoin is accepted quite widely by retailers around the world. It is difficult to get information about the number and value of total transactions conducted in digital currency, but, anecdotally, they are still growing. Read the latest Master Investor Magazine If the use of cryptocurrency were to become truly widespread, then there would be massive implications for the economy. Second, bitcoin — or another cryptocurrency — could become a truly global form of payment which would render central banks irrelevant as people dump traditional fiat money in favour of the most popular cryptocurrency.

The loss of power by central banks over monetary policy might be mirrored by a loss of control over fiscal policy by governments. Up until now, governments collect taxes in their own fiat currency and borrow in the bond markets the gilts market in the UK to make up any shortfall. If most people were paid in digital currency, then the state would have to levy taxes in that currency. But would governments be able to borrow in cryptocurrency to cover the fiscal deficit?

The answer to that question is unclear. Governments would no longer be able to inflate their way out of debt — the classic pattern over the last century. Instead, they would have to rely on direct taxation alone — and that will put pressure on states to shrink their spending programmes. Then there is the impact on the banking sector. If people start to store much of their purchasing power in their digital wallets, then that implies that they will reduce conventional deposits of fiat money within the banking system.

Once traditional banks start to lose deposits on a large scale, many will become illiquid and some, ultimately, will fail. As the threat of systemic failure within the banking system increases — especially in highly vulnerable currency systems such as the eurozone — so individuals will convert more of their traditional cash assets into cryptocurrency. This would further exacerbate the banking crisis. Much as I have been rude about bankers in these pages, that would imply a massive change to the structure of our economy.

The rise of cryptocurrency will probably also impact our political institutions. Proponents of delegative democracy believe that private, decentralised solutions will replace traditional public institutions. Then there are the crypto-anarchists who live in hacker communes a certain Amir Taaki has set one up Barcelona ; and the people who want to start their own micro-states, possibly floating at sea in seasteads , each of which will have its own cryptocurrency.

One fervent champion of bitcoin, Brock Pierce who is Director of the Bitcoin Foundation tried to set up a crypto-financed state in hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico to be called Puertopia. Get ready for weird. There are now at least 45 engineers working on this top-secret project and Facebook is still recruiting new blockchain experts. In a report by the New York Times on 28 February , the veil was lifted for the first time on what that team has achieved.

The NYT claimed that five Facebook employees had briefed the newspaper on condition of strict anonymity. The company is working on a digital coin FaceCoin? Since reporting this on the MI website on 08 March , I have learned that Facebook quietly secured a digital currency license from the Central Bank of Ireland two years ago, permitting the issuance of digital money and the provision of payment services throughout the EU [iv].

Sources suggest that the new cryptocurrency will first be made available in India where WhatsApp has million regular users. Moreover, India receives more remittances from Indian citizens working overseas than any other country. Facebook has about 2. Many of those accounts are corporate and there is much double counting as many individuals have multiple accounts. But that is still about one third of humanity. So it is probably fair to say that Facebook whatever you may think of it on an ethical or societal level is the most comprehensive network in the history of mankind.

If Facebook is really serious about cryptocurrency then investors should be too. Currently, there are almost 32 million bitcoin wallets according to data compiled by Statista. However, most bitcoin users have several bitcoin wallets and use multiple wallet addresses to increase their financial privacy when transacting in bitcoin, so the number of individual users is somewhat less than that. Ether is a token whose blockchain is generated by the Ethereum platform. Ether can be transferred between accounts as a form of payment.

The Litecoin Network aims to process a block every 2. One billion tokens were distributed by block. Telegram private is a cloud-based instant messaging and voice-over service registered in London and founded by Russian mathematician Pavel Durov and his brother Nikolai Durov. Users can send messages and exchange photos, videos or any kind of file attachments.

Telegram has an estimated million users worldwide. According to the NYT, Telegram is also working on a digital coin which will work with Signal Messenger , an encrypted messaging service developed by super-geek Moxie Marlinspike. The backers of early cryptocurrencies lacked reach but this new generation of messaging giants have the power to propel cryptocurrency into a new phase of its evolution.

In other words, fiat currencies work because they are backed by the state. The German sociologist Max Weber defined the state as the monopoly of legitimate violence over a given territory. But, hang on Professor Krugman, all bitcoin transactions are automatically verified by the blockchain — and millions of people are confident enough to use bitcoin to buy and sell products and services every day. Professor Krugman also claimed that transaction costs are higher with bitcoin than with fiat money.

Yet bitcoin offers international clearance within an hour — whereas payments through the international banking system usually take days to clear. The question is whether they are a store of value. One of its subsidiaries, Venmo acquired in , has taken off in the United States by making it easier to send payments by mobile phone. In China, over one billion people every month use the payment system that operates inside the hugely popular WeChat messaging system which is owned by Tencent SEHK All of these companies are thought to be working on digital currencies of their own.

Remember that there is a welter of specialist payment platforms out there. For example, Ujo provides automated payment services dedicated to musicians who want to sell rights to their music. Even a traditional credit card company like Visa is reported to be recruiting blockchain talent.

That suggests they are thinking of setting up cryptocurrency credit card platforms. One problem with cryptocurrency investment has been that you are only a hard drive away from losing everything. It is an outfit that is currently subject to litigation and contention and which I am absolutely NOT recommending. If you Google this company you will find that the website contains a message reporting that the company is under investigation for financial issues. Read the latest Master Investor Magazine The problem is that Mr Cotten had erected layered security around his bitcoin stash with complex passwords for each layer.

When he unexpectedly died his family realised that they could not get into his hard drive. As a result, a huge fortune remains locked on a piece of hardware — potentially forever. That is not the first time that a cryptocurrency fortune has been literally wiped out by death. In Matthew Moody, an early bitcoin advocate, died in a light aircraft crash in California. His father has spent these last years trying to reclaim his digital fortune — so far without success.

One can only wish him the best. And what if a bitcoin holder were to be kidnapped — a gruesome thought? Well, it has already happened. One possible safeguard is to set up a so-called multi-signature key. To be quite clear: If you do not have the private keys, then the bitcoin is lost. While using the same basic technology blockchain , the next generation of cryptocurrencies will seek to avoid the shortcomings of first-generation cryptocurrencies.

Firstly, the NYT thinks that any digital currency that Facebook were to develop would reside on a decentralized network of computers independently from its creators. The same goes for ones developed by messaging networks and payments platforms — in other words such currencies could be used universally. New cryptocurrencies would make it easier to move money between countries, particularly in the developing world where it is harder for ordinary people to open bank accounts and to obtain credit cards.

According to the website Stable Report there are three types of stablecoin : asset-backed on-chain; asset-backed off-chain; and algorithmic. The first kind would be cryptocurrencies which are backed by other cryptocurrencies. The third type, algorithmic, relies on a combination of algorithms and contracts to maintain price equilibrium.

An April concert programmed operatic selections, performed by local vocalists. On the program were pieces from the popular opera "Erminie," performed at this concert for the first time in the Upper Peninsula. One hundred fifty couples attended the Easter dance, which lasted until A.

Longyear reported that the City Band supplied music "of the best. Longyear described the band's performance as "grand mag- nificent, inspiring music," and indicated that the band met all expectations. Cramer, the band director, praised the work of his musicians that night, described the band as the finest in the Upper Peninsula, and stated that the band was above average for Army type bands.

Kaufman and Sons, a local merchant. Several bids sub- mitted from other cities were lower, but the band argued that the city had helped them raise the money, so the home firm should receive the bid. The band reportedly felt so proud of the uniforms that they eclipsed all previous performance efforts.

It was advertised that the band program would consist of the "greatest strains from the greatest composers. On June 22, , the band played for the com- mencement of the St. Joseph Academy, a local girls school. The graduation class consisted of three young ladies.

The processional selection for the commencement was Ivanhoe March by Blake. Additional selections included an over- ture and two concert pieces. Each band performed a short concert following the parade. In the Marquette City 1J. Band paraded through the city at A.

At A. During the day baseball games were played, while the Marquette City Band provided music for dancing at a local club. The musician--William T. Allen, from Yorkshire, England--was described by Longyear as the best slide trombonist in the state. The Calumet paper published a statement regarding the July challenge of the bands. The Calumet News must think our band [Marquette] never tackled anything but Sunday school music. The first picnic, August 10, , was given for a local union of workers.

The union, which included over six hundred people, traveled to Champion, Michigan, for the picnic. The group visited a nearby mountain and Longyear reported that the band played in the middle of the mountain peak. Longyear, "Picnic on Mt. Mesnard," The Mining Journal, August 24, , p. Each band performed the same composi- tion in competition--The Field of the Cloth of Gold. Although specific selections of music for the concert were not listed in a Mining Journal article, Longyear reported that some listeners complained about not being able to hear the music at the outer limits of the crowd.

The Marquette City Band spent the remainder of with performances that included a Labor Day celebration, parade and concert; a state fair, in Marquette; and a final concert on November 27, The final concert was given in order to raise money for new uniforms. The band, known as the Queen City Cornet Band, had the following instrumentation: one Eb cornet, one Bb cornet, two alto horns, two tenor horns, one baritone, one tuba, one snare drum, and one bass drum.

The Queen City Cornet Band was commonly referred to as the "kid" band. Swineford, The Mining Journal, April 21, , p. Mining Journal editor, in an article on April 21, , suggested that the band's leader was experienced and able to produce quality music. They per- formed a march as they paraded toward the bandstand. The young members played so well that they surprised the people of the city. The "kid" band had performed for the first time. With the collected funds the group purchased uniforms from a local clothing manufacturer.

The uniforms were dark blue with white stripes on the trousers and gold braid in loops on the coats. The uniforms also had torch-bearing hats, for use in night parades. The band, still known as the "kid" band, made plans to stage a Grand Ball in Armory Hall. Homier's Orchestra was hired to furnish music for the ball; however, the Queen City Cornet Band performed several numbers.

This group was also described as a "kid" band. Summary The Bands' Functions During the period the Ma ,uette bands served a variety of functions. One of the major functions was performing music for parades. The parades were usually for holidays, political rallies, and special events. Each parade was generally followed by a short band concert. The bands also played music for public social activi- ties such as picnics and dances. Other performances con- sisted of traveling to Upper Peninsula cities and perfor- ming on the trains, and performing for conventions or tournaments.

Another function of the Marquette bands during the period was performing music at the train depot. The performances were usually for the benefit of digni- taries or visitors for special celebrations. Lastly, the Marquette bands began a series of outdoor and indoor concerts for the citizens of the city. The concerts were well attended and were usually performed during the summer months.

Instrumentation In the early part of the researched period the Marquette bands consisted of brass and percussion instruments. Early band instrumentation included upper and lower brass instruments with bass and snare drums. The early bands had ten to twelve players. By the size and instrumentation of the Marquette bands had changed. The bands were expanded to fifteen or sixteen players, with mid-range brass instru- ments also being used.

Alto horns, baritones, trombones, and helicon tubas were commonly used. The Eb and Bb cornets, snare drum and bass drum were also a part of the band instrumentation. Performed Music The Marquette bands performed for m Ly different functions during the period For each function the bands were required to perform different musical selections.

The music consisted of marches for parades and concerts, patriotic music for concerts or special holidays, sacred music for concerts, and arrangements of popular songs as well as solo selections for a variety of instruments. Music for dances during the period usually included popular dance "tunes" such as schottisches, quadrilles, galops, polkas and Virginia reels. Each dance began with a Grand March and ended with a popular song.

In general the period was active for the Marquette bands. The bands' instrumentation expanded 61 from about ten musicians to sixteen with brass instru- ments predominating. A variety of music was performed with concerts, dances and parades as the bands' major functions.

As in previous years the band pro- vided music for different societies, organizations and city government functions. This performance, a meeting of the Knights of the Maccabees, consisted of only three selections. The Marquette City Band met several groups of arriving guests at the train depot. For example, on April 5, , the Odd Fellows engaged the band to play for their annual celebration, which included meeting the train at the depot, a parade and picnic.

In exchange for unlimited use of the Marquette Rifle's meeting hall, the Marquette City Band collected no fee. On that date the band, escorted by the Marquette Rifles, serenaded the home of the new mayor, J. In appreciation the mayor and his wife distributed cigars to the band.

A parade honoring the war dead proceeded to the city cemetery, where flowers were placed on the veterans' graves. The band then opened the official exercises with a sort con- cert consisting of an overture of national airs, bugle calls and civil war songs. The commemoration of the war dead also included patriotic speeches by local officials and a performance by a local chorus.

One bandstand, near the Marquette Hotel, was the site of the Marquette City Band's first summer night concert of the year, on June 28, King Selection Heinecke Waltzes Bennett Pot Pourri Heinecke Serenade Tobiani The second summer concert was scheduled for the other bandstand, which was located on the opposite side of the city.

The band alternated between the two bandstands and performed twice a month during the summer of To alleviate this difficulty the band approached the Marquette City Council for funding. The council could not support the band, so an appeal was made to the citizens of the city. The Mining Journal's editor suggested that private citizens "open their private purse strings. Since most concerts, parades aid picnics were in the summer months, the bandsmen would have to leave work.

Longyear thought the city should reimburse the bandsmen for lost work time. The concert, attended by over six hundred people, was a welcome suc- cess. The proceeds of the concert were used to fund the concert series. A reviewer stated that the band appeared nervous at the beginning, but eventually settled down. In addition the concert featured Charles Geill, who per- formed a clarinet solo followed by an encore.

The encore was Variations on Coming Thro' the Rye. Geill was described by The Mining Journal's editor as an artist of rare ability. The concert was considered to have been the most successful in the band's history. The concert, which lasted only a few minutes due to cold temperatures, consisted of three selections. The band led a parade which was followed by a concert and public speeches. A great deal of musical activity was scheduled for the Marquette Fourth of July celebration.

An official schedule listed several Marquette City Band con- certs and an annual parade. The Marquette City Band was billed as the official Fifth Regiment Band, the billing indica- tive of a military affiliation for this event. The band performed music for the ball, the proceeds of which were used to purchase new uniforms.

The last concert displayed the Marquette City Band's support for the other "arts. One of the primary reasons was the formation of a new orchestra. The orchestra director, W. Bartley, made arrangements with the Marquette City Band to form an orchestra recruited from its members. Bartley believed that the formation of a new orchestra would enable the band to fulfill engagements for concerts, dances and parades.

To commence the ball the band played a grand march, which was led by James Grey, a local fireman. Grey evidently improvised new dance combinations so interesting that the band found it diffi- cult to keep playing. Six members of the Marquette City Band usually performed dance music at the balls. The last "grand" masquerade ball of the The Opera House hired road plays, musicals, orchestras, and other enter- tainment.

The play featured dancing, acrobatics, and acting, and was accompanied by a small orchestra. In June of the band played for the Knights of the Maccabees annual picnic, which also consisted of a parade and concert. The band was partially funded by the Maccabees during the summer of Longyear, editor of The Mining Journal, re- torted that "our band" could still play with the best of them and should have received a mention in the paper.

The engagements at the Casino consisted of performing music for roller skating, and became a weekly job during the winter months. Celebrates," The Mining Journal, June 11, , p. These balls were held at the Marquette Casino. As in previous years, the band also played music for skating at the Casino's skating rink. New members were recruited by March 10, , and new music had been purchased for the summer concerts.

To raise money for new uniforms the Marquette City Band planned to give an April 28, , concert. The concert was postponed until May 5, , and was per- formed in the Marquette Opera House. The audience was smaller than the band was accustomed to, but they played well despite the low attendance. During that year the director of the Hughes Orchestra formed a band from the members of his orchestra and led the traditional 1"First Masquerade of the Season," The Mining Journal, January 28, , p.

Memorial Day parade. Up until this time the Marquette City Band had always led the parade. For example, Hughes hired a "trap drummer" from Boston who was reported to have been one of the best men in the business. Figure 3. During the summer months the Marquette City Band played music for its regular outdoor concert series and performed for different local societies; e. Jean Baptiste Society. In Figure 4 the Marquette City Band was assembling for a parade circa At the parade the band's instrumentation consisted of two clarinets, three cornets, three alto horns, two tenor horns baritones , one trom- bone, two basses, one snare drum and one bass drum.

Other bands including the Star Cornet Band of Ishpeming were also in attendance at the Ishpeming parade. Figure 4. Sanders, who served as director for eleven years, had accepted a position with the Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Michigan. The mining firm had hired Mr. Sanders to form and direct a band composed of company employees.

David, from Billings, Montana, had been selected as the new director. David, an experienced musician, had previously taught piano, band instruments, and concert music. David occurred on May 31, On that date the band serenaded the home of Mayor and Mrs. Kaufman, to celebrate their recent return from a vacation.

The band was later served refreshments by Mayor and Mrs. The con- cert, which began with the overture L'Amazone by Laurendeau, consisted of choral, vocal and instrumental solos and full band selections. A Mining Journal repor- ter indicated that the people of Marquette were pleasantly surprised at the excellent caliber of performance since 1"The New Band Leader," The Mining Journal, December 2, , p. Polk, , p. Hundreds of people crowded into the park to hear and enjoy the band's music.

The Mining Journal reporter stated that the band had decided to play for the picnic rather than travel to Newberry, Michigan one hundred miles east of Marquette , where they would have received a fee of one hundred dollars. After the Marquette City Band played an outdoor con- cert on the balcony of the Marquette Hotel July 19, , many residents believed that they had heard the final concert of the band. Several members of the band had made plans to leave the Marquette area, but were convinced by city residents to remain through the season.

The carriage procession to the prison began at A. When the strike ended the Guard returned via special train. The Guard was met at the train depot by the Marquette City Band, which played several patriotic selections. Hoar; and Treasurer, Alfred Hibbard.

David was retained as director. The intention was partially realized as several winter performances were documented. The band and city officials with wives, friends and acquaintances traveled to the prison by horse-drawn sleigh. The trip was reported to have been enjoyable, but punctuated by the "usual chorus of feminine screams whenever the sleigh lurched to one side or the other.

Song and Dance Sweet Little Daisy".. The inac- tivity was believed to have been due to the variety of entertainment present in Marquette. The railroad furnished transportation to the concert. The parade proceeded from downtown to Meeske's Grove2 for the picnic. The entire event lasted the whole day of July 27, Longyear commented on the circus acts and the circus' famous band led by Antonio Liberati.

Longyear reported were enjoyed by the Marquette audience. The parade, which included six area bands, was followed by a meagerly attended evening con- cert. The final performance by the Marquette City Band was a dance given by G. Burtis on October 25, Burtis was moving his mill from Marquette to Munising, Michigan Spring, , and the dance, attended by over twelve hundred people, was considered to be a farewell ball.

A Mining Journal reporter commented that the dancers would not leave until the twenty-six numbers of the "order of dances" were exhausted. David, who resigned to become manager of the postal telegraph office. At the farewell ball the Marquette City Band played waltzes, airs, and a grand march with one hundred forty-eight couples in line. Although titles of the concert selections were not listed in The Mining Journal, Longyear stated that theatrical effects were utili ed to sensa- tionalize the music.

Longyear also reported that authen- tic thunderstorm sounds were used in one of the performed pieces. Mission Band met regularly at local residences, but no evidence of public performances exists. The band at this time was thought to be in excellent financial and musical condition, and was pre- paring for the summer concert season.

Generally any type of band activity is documented in Marquette's newspaper, The Mining Journal. A reporter mentioned in a Mining Journal article of June 6, , that a five-piece German band passed through Marquette. The band spent the afternoon and evening playing on the street corners probablyy for donations. The reporter also commented that "the music was a long ways from bad. July 4, , celebration in Marquette. The July 4 per- formance included a parade followed by a concert.

Longyear reported that the bands in attendance marched in the mud and their music was drowned out by the crowd's noise. Because there was no band in Marquette, organizations were forced to use other musical groups or hire out-of-town bands. For example, on Memorial Day May 30, the civic societies used a fife and drum corps to lead the annual parade.

The absence of a city band became so great that the St. The parade and concert were the only city band performances of The statue of Father Marquette was unveiled with the assistance of other city bands. The Calumet City Band was the official representa- tive of Marquette at the festivities. Summary The Bands' Functions During the period the Marquette bands' functions remained generally the same as they had been during the period The Marquette bands' per- formances consisted of the traditional practice of meeting trains, serenading political figures, playing for parades, and providing music for dances, masquerade balls or picnics.

In general the performances in Marquette during changed somewhat from a parade emphasis to that of a concert emphasis. Many more indoor and outdoor con- certs were given during the period than in the period The bands of Marquette had started to entertain through concerts rather than other social per- formances. Instrumentation In the Marquette bands' instrumentation was brass and percussion, but by early the bands had begun using woodwind instruments.

The Marquette City Band had clarinets in and also featured, on occasion, solos for saxophone, flute, vocalist or violin. The solos were accompanied by the full band. In general the brass instrumentation with added woodwinds prevailed during the period Performed Music During the period the Marquette bands per- formed music for parades, such as marches and popular tunes.

On concerts the bands played selections such as Civil War songs, national airs and patriotic tunes. The performance of selections such as these was attributed to the possibility of a Spanish-American War. Overtures, sacred selections and arrangements of operatic material were commonly used on the Marquette concerts. Lastly, dance music was usually performed on concerts, at picnics, and at masquerade balls or dances. The period was considered to be a transi- tional period in regard to the bands' functions, instru- mentation, and performed music.

The function was changing from marching to concert; the instrumentation was utilizing more woodwinds than in previous years; and more concert-oriented selections were being performed. At a band rehearsal on January 6, , the Marquette City Band's members elected the following officers: F. The concert, a benefit for starving Cubans pre-Spanish-American War , included a local orchestra, vocal soloists, instrumental soloists, as well as the City Band. The parade, described by a Mining Journal repor- ter as a "patriotic march," started at one end of town, proceeded to the other end of town, and returned.

This May 21, , Marquette parade was performed for a jubilant crowd that had turned out to support the Lake Superior Guards. The parade, given on Decoration Day, May 28, , consisted of marches and patriotic music. During the band rehearsed twice weekly in the city hall, had a voting contest to choose the band's name, and gave benefit concerts for new uni- forms.

The Cadet Greys had twenty-one members, who had their own instruments, and consisted of the following instrumentation: two clarinets, one soprano saxophone, one alto saxophone, one tenor saxophone, one baritone saxophone, four cornets, three alto horns, two tenor horns, one baritone horn, one Bb bass, one tuba, two percussionists, and a drum major. Latterall, vice- president; and G. On April 7, , the band played a short concert for the Marquette city council, to publicize the band's fund raising 1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a radio series, Historical Highlights, Vol.

Another fund raising event occurred on May 20, On that date the Cadet Greys gave a Grand Ball, to raise 2 money for uniforms. At the Grand Ball music was fur- nished by the Marquette Ideal Orchestra and admission was twenty-five cents, with supper extra.

Kushner ' s encouragement that the author pursued a degree in the college teaching of music history. In addition, acknowledgement is due to the Marquette Historical Society for their cooperation and assistance in the location of primary documents; the Peter White Library for access to their microfilms of The Mining Journal ; and Copy Services of Marquette, Michigan, for their excellent reproductive services.

The Marquette City Band 44 3. Typical "Trap Drummer" of the Period circa 72 4. Jean Baptiste Society circa 74 5. Hanck's Drum and Bugle Corps 6. The Marquette Branch Prison Band circa 7. Our Boy's Band 8. The Marquette Finnish Band 9. The viii PAGE 9 findings of the study further supported the theory by Goldman that the development of the band in the United States proceeded along roughly parallel lines, in that the Marquette bands were influenced by the large city bands' functions, instrumentation and performed music.

The study established a parallel between the national band development and the Marquette band development. PAGE 11 4. Photographs of several bands when available were collected and presented in this study. PAGE 12 A secondary need for the present research was to compile and disseminate material on the history of the Marquette bands. The study would provide information on the bands' significance to local history. Limit at ions The present study utilized the following limitations: 1. A historical dissertation by Payne entitled "History of the Platform in Marquette"-'was used to compile local historical sources.

PAGE 15 Marquette historical material books, articles and other documents were studied to provide a local historical basis for the literature review. Collection of Data The collection of data was accomplished by a methodical search through the local newspaper, The M l ing Journal. For purposes of this study only the years were searched for data on the Marquette bands. There was also an analysis of several photographs of Marquette's bands and a survey of local historical books, magazines and documents.

The search, collation, and analysis of material was conducted from June to June PAGE 16 Organization of the Remaining Chapters Chapter II contains a review of significant literature on the City of Marquette, including important events leading to the establishment of the city and its bands. Forty years later the prospects of a water passage to the Pacific Ocean, wealth, fur trading, copper mining, and political comination of North America inspired additional exploration.

The Chippewa Indian title to the Upper Peninsula was liquidated in following which the United States government made mineralogical , topographical and linear surveys. The information gathered in these surveys was iRichard F. PAGE 18 an important factor in the opening and settlement of the peninsula. In prospectors "swarmed" into the area and in the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron range was established. In Amos Harlow, Peter White and other settlers from Worcester, Massachusetts, arrived at the present site of Marquette for the purpose of establishing an iron forge on the shore of Lake Superior.

Transportation played an important role in the development of the iron industry and the City of Marquette, In the United States Congress gave the state of Michigan , acres of public land to construct a canal between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Consequently, Marquette established and maintained a waterworks in PAGE 20 11 Other significant events important to the growth of Marquette included the building of a harbor lighthouse , the establishment of a United States government land office , the building of a Michigan Branch Prison in the city of Marquette , the construction of a hydroelectric plant , the establishment of a Coast Guard life-saving station , and the founding of an Upper Peninsula university, Northern State Normal School later changed to Northern Michigan University.

Chase stated that Marquette's growth was similar to other small American communities in the 2 late nineteenth century. After the turn of the century the city charter was established , as Marquette enjoyed increased activity in the mining industry.

PAGE 21 12 The Mining Journal was the major Marquette source of national, regional and local news, thus was extremely important for the documentation of local history. Early in The Mining Journal 's history the paper became known as the "greatest industrial paper in the peninsula. Swineford, owner of a Negaunee newspaper, Mining and Manufacturing News , moved his newspaper plant to the Marquette area and reestablished a Marquette paper.

Swineford, an opinionated editor, was twice elected mayor of Marquette, was elected to the Michigan legislature, and was appointed Governor of the Alaskan Territory In Swineford sold The Mining Journal to J. Bryant also stated that amateur bands were formed by municipal groups, manufacturing companies, colleges, and universities. Antoine Jullien influenced Patrick Gilmore, who by had organized his own professional band. Schwartz, Bands of America , p.

PAGE 25 16 gained recognition as a cornet soloist and director of several Boston area bands, Gilmore attracted many excellent musicians to his bands. Th,e first mammoth festival, a five-day National Peace Jubilee Boston, , consisted of over 10, musicians performing in orchestras, choruses and bands.

Dwight, Dwight's Journal of Music , July 3, , p. The 22nd Regiment Band contributed to the national band movement in regards to instrumentation, performance excellence, and repertoire. In a Harper's Weekly article, Mead commented that the Sousa band ".

PAGE 27 18 Sousa's new band, which was an immediate success, originally consisted of forty-nine players, who were auditioned personally by Sousa. The success of Sousa and his band was mentioned in many documents, e. Paul E. PAGE 28 19 many people, or held in greater popular affection, than this great American concert band. In the smaller cities the band averaged twenty-five men each, while in small rural towns the band numbered from twelve to eighteen 3 members. By the year the number of United States' bands had doubled, but had begun to decline after PAGE 29 20 The amateur or professional town bands paved the way for the introduction of public school bands.

By the professional big bands, the public school bands and numerous jazz bands had replaced the town bands as the major entertainment function for the community. The function of the Civil War band consisted of performing for the armies on the march , playing serenades at the evening's encampments for the officers and men, serving as medics during the battles, and playing for ceremonies or dress parades.

Mead commented that the bands of dispensed both the popular and higher class music of the day. PAGE 30 21 that the bands served a necessary educational function, in that "they provided music to remote sections, where the inhabitants were unable to hear them at first hand, and without their local band, they would perhaps never hear them at all. The bands were also conspicuous features of public parades and processional events. PAGE 31 22 In contrast, the bands after the turn of the century to the 's provided entertainment in the form of concerts.

Ins t rument at ion In most cities and towns had one or more bands. The large city bands augmented their instrumentation with the following: double reeds oboe, English horn, bassoon , alto clarinets, saxophones, trumpets, euphoniums, timpani, and additional numbers of the other instruments. In the band's instrumentation included the antoniophone, the surrasophone , the helicon tuba, the orpheon, and the euphonium-trombone.

Gilmore, for all of his experimentation, had established the concert band in the United States. In contrast, the average band of was composed of twenty-five percent woodwinds, iRichard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band , p. PAGE 34 25 sixty-three percent brass, and twelve percent percussion. His last band utilized sixty-four percent woodwinds, thirty-two percent brass, and four percent percussion.

Many of the professional bands performed a variety of music designed to entertain audiences, while marching bands played only marches or spirited tunes. Barnum, performed fantasies, popular pieces, quadrilles, waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, schot t isches , tarantelles, galops and arrangements of classical pieces. Jullien the composer performed many of his own compositions on the concert tour, as well as selections by American composers such as William Henry Fry. Susanna , and Nellie Was a Lady.

The town bands emulated the larger bands in regard to music programming. Summary Richard Franko Goldman, son of the famous conductor Edwin Franko Goldman, wrote that "the development of the band in the United States proceeded along roughly parallel iTheodore M.

PAGE 37 28 lines. In the 's the band played for parades, excursions, and social events, but by usually performed only concerts. The bands' instrumentation evolved from the brass bands of the 's to the predominately woodwind instrumentation of the later Sousa bands. Most of the smaller city bands followed the models set by the larger professional organizations.

The bands of the discussed period filled a need in r the musical life of the community by providing the only v live music in places that could not maintain orchestras or other musical ensembles. The need for major entertainment subsequently led to the formation of local bands. Apparently bands played an important role in the community, performing for dances, picnics and public functions, but local historians had overlooked their importance.

The major PAGE 39 30 question of the majority of the studies was, How widespread was the band movement? From the number of major documented performances by Marquette bands and the size and nature of the Marquette concert audience, there was reason to analyze and interpret why the Marquette area was conducive to the formation of bands. The reasons, as stated, formed the justification for the present research. During a group of German settlers, of whom there were quite a few from pioneer days , formed o the German Silver Cornet Band.

Boyer indicated that the group was funded by the village Marquette and rehearsed in a room of the old courthouse. The band gave several concerts, one from Ripley's Rock lower harbor--Mar que t te. On January 11, , a concert was given by the Gesang Verein. The concert, although not well attended because of poor publicity, provided good singing and "exhiler at ing" instrumental playing.

The Mining Journal reporter commented, ". The fellow who can sling a drumstick with Spence has to get up early in the morning. PAGE 42 33 Other bands were formed to provide entertainment during No "' other mention of this particular band was present. Nitroglycerine was used in lieu of a cannon.

Celebrations of holidays and special events in Marquette usually consisted of the organization of special trains to provide transportation to the city for the festivities. Advertisement, The Mining Journal , February 5, , p. At lakeside the band boarded the steamer Michigammee and accompanying barge for a trip to a nearby island. The band entertained the guests throughout the trip.

Marquette was known as a health resort, especially for sufferers of hayfever. Many tourists traveled to the city and stayed for one to two months. Many activities were available, including horse racing, camping, bicycling, dances, gambling houses, and band 1 "The Fourth," The Mining Journal , July 11, , P. PAGE 44 35 concerts. In a company of the Michigan national guard called the Chasseurs gave a drill, ball and reception in recognition of Washington's Birthday.

The ball was held at the Cozzins Hotel, with music provided by the Marquette Band. The editor also stated that there were enough musicians in Marquette, and the Chasseurs should have a band of their 3 own. J The period was somewhat bleak in regard to organized band activities. Bands usually played for dances of the local societies and were mentioned in newspaper articles on several occasions as performers of excellent music.

During the month of January, , a Mr. Boyer reported that the town "wits" immediately yelled out that the p. PAGE 46 37 poor music was more than the horse could stand. The Clifton Hotel had negotiated and hired the Chequamegon orchestra and band to do a series of outdoor concerts. One of the outdoor concerts July 4, featured the Chequamegon orchestra and band.

Although no specific titles of selections were listed in a Mining Journal article, the program consisted of several band compositions including a piccolo solo, a cornet solo, and a clarinet solo, all accompanied by the band. All bands participated in a parade followed by a short concert presentation, The Calumet Band was believed to have been the superior organization due partially to the fact that they had more practice.

Homire, was improving rapidly and providing the city of Marquette with a series of summer concerts. During the summer of three musicians from the steamer Quebec , which had recently sunk in the Marquette harbor, stayed a brief period in the Marquette lM Chequamegons , " The Mining Journal , July 4, , P. Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. The band, known as the Calumet Eureka Band, was a younger version of the Calumet City Band that was known for its o excellence.

As was indicated in the photograph of the Calumet Band Fig. PAGE 50 41 Figure 1. PAGE 52 43 guests , dinner music and another march to end the festivities. On trips the bands furnished lusic. Upon arrival the band generally gave a concert and then participated in the merriment. During there were three separate bands performing in Marquette.

PAGE 53 44 drum, one bass drum, and one cymbal player. The Marquette City Band 11 After greeting the guests at the Marquette train depot, the Marquette City Band fifteen members , reception committee, and guests moved in procession to the Casino, where the dance program began. The program was lengthy and consisted of waltzes, scho t t is ches , marches PAGE 54 45 and quadrilles.

Schottische B. Owen, along with his musicians, were said to be a pleasant body of men, who fulfilled their duties "perfectly. The band also played with other bands in parades and events such as picnics, baseball games a ,d county fairs. According to the editor of The Mining Journal , A. Swineford, the Marquette City Band had an excellent reputation during Swineford, The Mining Journal , April 14, , p.

PAGE 56 47 Mrs. The Marquette City Band played a few selections so well that nearby neighbors invited the band to dinner. Concerts were scheduled throughout the week with the Marquette City Band and the Champion City Band as the main attractions. Political rallies were events at which bands could perform. The Marquette City Band escorted a politician!

Swineford reported that the Republican party held a lobster bake on November 17, , at which every Republican? Swineford, The Mining Journal , November 17, , p. The c vocal solos were enthusiastically received, as encores were requested. The Rifles had arranged for an exhibition drill performance by visiting drill teams and, as was the custom, the Marquette City Band led the uniformed procession to the depot.

Longyear, The Mining Journal , January 19, , p. Several bids submitted from other cities were lower, but the band argued that the city had helped them raise the money, so the home firm should receive the bid. The Marquette City Band made a humanitarian gesture when they performed a sacred concert for the benefit of the victims of the Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood of 1 J. On June 22, , the band played for the commencement of the St. Additional selections included an overture and two concert pieces.

In the Marquette City 1 J. PAGE 63 54 to accept the challenge, they Calumet would play three pieces more difficult than the composition Crown of Victory. Mesnard," The Mining Journal , August 24, , p. PAGE 64 55 contest was one of the biggest achievements of the band, since they won second place.

The competition, between older bands with a greater reputation , had a large number of entries. A concert given by the Marquette City Band on August 24, , was attended by many local residents. PAGE 65 56 The Marquette City Band spent the remainder of with performances that included a Labor Day celebration, parade and concert; a state fair, in Marquette; and a final concert on November 27, J The band had evidently been the brunt of many jokes around the city.

Swineford, The Mining Journal , April 21, , p. PAGE 66 57 Mining Journal editor, in an article on April 21, , suggested that the band's leader was experienced and able to produce quality music. They performed a march as they paraded toward the bandstand. Swineford, The Mining Journal , April 21, p. In March ,of the Queen City Cornet Band began raising funds to purchase a new set of instruments.

P1 The Mining Journal , November 17, , p. The bands also played music for public social activities such as picnics and dances. Other performances consisted of traveling to Upper Peninsula cities and performing on the trains, and performing for conventions or tournaments. The performances were usually for the benefit of dignitaries or visitors for special celebrations.

Ins t rumen tat ion In the early part of the researched period the Marquette bands consisted of brass and percussion PAGE 69 60 instruments. The bands were expanded to fifteen or sixteen players, with mid-range brass instruments also being used. Performed Music The Marquette bands performed for m ly different functions during the period The music consisted of marches for parades and concerts, patriotic music for concerts or special holidays, sacred music for concerts, and arrangements of popular songs as well as solo selections for a variety of inst ruments.

Music for dances during the period usually included popular dance "tunes" such as schot t isches , quadrilles, galops, polkas and Virginia reels. The bands' instrumentation expanded PAGE 70 61 from about ten musicians to sixteen with brass instruments predominating. A variety of music was performed with concerts, dances and parades as the bands' major f unc t ions.

As in previous years the band provided music for different societies, organizations and city government functions. The Marquette City Band's director, William Sanders, conducted the band for the first time of on March 20 This performance, a meeting of the Knights of the Maccabees, consisted of only three selections.

For example, on April 5, , the Odd Fellows engaged the band to play for their annual celebration, which included meeting the train at the depot, a parade and 2 picnic. Occasionally the Marquette City Band performed for favors. The band then opened the official exercises with a s:. PAGE 73 64 performed many waltzes of the time. The City of Marquette had two bandstands in Heinecke Walt zes The Mining Jo urnal's editor suggested that private citizens "open their private purse strings.

Because of the band's summer performance schedule, the band members could not earn as much pay as other Marquette citizens. Since most concerts, parades a' d picnics were in the summer months, the bandsmen would have to leave work. The concert, attended by over six hundred people, was a welcome success.

In addition the concert featured Charles Geill, who performed a clarinet solo followed by an encore. Geill was described by The Mining Journal 's editor as an artist of rare ability. An official schedule listed several Marquette City Band concerts and an annual parade. The Marquette City Band was billed as the official Fifth Regiment Band, the billing indicative of a military affiliation for th is event The Fourth of July celebration, which attracted five thousand visitors from out of the city, continued into the evening.

PAGE 77 68 concert at a local art show. Grey evidently improvised new dance combinations so interesting that the band found it difficult to keep playing. Masquerade balls were popular in The last "grand" masquerade ball of the season March 1, offered prizes for the best costumes and dancers.

The Opera House hired road plays, musicals, orchestras, and other entertainment. PAGE 79 70 which included a parade and concert. The celebration was mentioned in Houghton's newspaper, but the Marquette City Band was not recognized. Longyear, editor of The Mining Journal , retorted that "our band" could still play with the best of them and should have received a mention in the paper. Celebrates," The Mining Journal , June 11, , p.

The concert was postponed until May 5, , and was performed in the Marquette Opera House. During that year the director of the Hughes Orchestra formed a band from the members of his orchestra and led the traditional IFirst Masquerade of the Season," The Mining Journal , January 28, , p. February 11, , p. At the parade the band's instrumentation consisted of two clarinets, three cornets, three alto horns, two tenor horns baritones , one trombone, two basses, one snare drum and one bass drum.

PAGE 83 74 Figure 4. David recruited members, rehearsed the Marquette City Band during the winter'of , and also participated in other musical activities; i. The concert, which began with the overture L ' Amazone by Laurendeau, consisted of choral, vocal and instrumental solos and full band selections. A Mining Journal reporter indicated that the people of Marquette were pleasantly surprised at the excellent caliber of performance since 1" The New Band Leader," The Mining Journal , December 2, , p.

The decision to play for the picnic indicated that the band had allegiance to the City of Marque t te. After the Marquette City Band played an outdoor concert on the balcony of the Marquette Hotel July 19, , many residents believed that they had heard the final concert of the band. Several members of the band had made plans to leave the Marquette area, but were convinced by city residents to remain through the 3 season.

PAGE 88 79 the band's major intent was to perform throughout the winter months in addition to their regular summer schedule. Waltz "Sounds from Erin" PAGE 89 80 generally remained inactive until the summer.

The inactivity was believed to have been due to the variety of entertainment present in Marquette. The parade proceeded from downtown to Meeske's Grove 2 for the picnic. July 15, , p. The parade, which included six area bands, was followed by a meagerly attended evening concert. Although titles of the concert selections were not listed in The Mining Journal , Longyear stated that theatrical effects were utili e d to sensationalize the music.

Longyear also reported that authentic thunderstorm sounds were used in one of the performed 2 pieces. The program included a flute solo by Hoelscher, a cornet solo by Young, a saxophone solo by Charles Geill, and a violin solo by the orchestra's director, a Mr. PAGE 92 83 Mission Band met regularly at local residences, but no evidence of public performances exists. The band at this time was thought to be in excellent financial and musical condition, and was p"eparing for the summer concert season.

The band spent the afternoon and evening playing on the street corners probably for donations. The July 4 performance included a parade followed by a concert. PAGE 94 85 , at the society's annual festival. The Calumet City Band was the official representative of Marquette at the festivities. The Marquette bands' performances consisted of the traditional practice of meeting trains, serenading political figures, playing for parades, and providing music for dances, masquerade balls or picnics.

PAGE 95 86 In general the performances in Marquette during changed somewhat from a pande emphasis to that of a concert emphasis. Many more indoor and outdoor concerts were given during the period than in the period The bands of Marquette had started to entertain through concerts rather than other social performances. The Marquette City Band had clarinets in and also featured, on occasion solos for saxophone, flute, vocalist or violin. Performed Music During the period the Marquette bands performed music for parades, such as marches and popular tunes.

Lastly, dance music was usually performed on concerts', at picnics, and at masquerade balls or dances. The period was considered to be a transitional period in regard to the bands' functions, instrumentation, and performed music. The concert, a benefit for starving Cubans p re-S panish-Amer ican War , included a local orchestra, vocal soloists, instrumental soloists, as well as the City Band. The parade, described by a Mining Journal repor ter as a "patriotic march," started at one end of town, proceeded to the other end of town, and returned.

During the band rehearsed twice weekly in the city hall, had a voting contest to choose the band's name, and gave benefit concerts for new uniforms. Latterall, vicepresident; and G. On April 7, , the band played a short concert for the Marquette city council, to publicize the band's fund raising 1 Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a radio series, Historical Highlights , Vol. PAGE 91 activities.

The Cadet Greys were raising money to purchase additional instruments, new uniforms and music. At the Grand Ball music was furnished by the Marquette Ideal Orchestra and admission was twenty-five cents, with supper extra. In February of the band held a special meeting at which they planned the year's performances.

On February 27, , an editor of The Mining Journal stated that the Cadet Greys were a rare occurrence in the band field. September 4, 18 98, p. October 29, , p. The procession was held in honor of two local citizens who died in the Spanish-American War. The ball, held at Fraternity Hall, featured Muhlbaur's orchestra. A special attraction of the ball was a cakewalk, which was performed for the first time in Marquette. On that date the band performed patriotic music for a parade honoring deceased veterans.

PAGE 94 proceeded through the city to the opera house, where a short concert was performed. A Mining Journal reporter mentioned that hundreds attended the event. During the summer of the Cadet Greys performed for many different functions. On June 9, , the band played for the Maccabees annual summer convention. The convention performance included meeting the visiting Maccabees at the train depot, escorting them to the Fraternity Hall, and marching in an afternoon parade. PAGE 95 planning for an August, , firemen's tournament.

Later in the day of July 4 the Cadet Greys performed a patriotic concert, which concluded with pecial daylight fireworks. The tournament, which included over 3, visitors, consisted of a large parade, competitive events, and an evening concert. Each band accompanied its respective city's firemen units.

On August 23, , the Cadet Greys performed a concert on the lawn of a local resident, S. The concert was well attended but curtailed because of rain. PAGE 96 for lunch. On the program were selections by the band, a magic act by G. Fox, and a showing of pictures of the Cuban War. Most of the performances were parades for different organizations, short concerts or political rallies. A special excursion train traveled to Michigamme from Marquette with five hundred Marquette residents and the Cadet Greys.

The Cadet Greys performed in a parade in Marquette on June 25, The parade was organized for the St. John Baptiste Quarter Century Jubilee. PAGE 98 On the streets the band played marches, popular tunes, and dances designed to arouse the citizens' interest in the festivities. The final performances of for the Cadet Greys were the annual Marquette Labor Day parade of September 2, , and performances at local political rallies on October 27, At the rallies the Cadet Greys played music appropriate to the respective political parties.

The functions included music for skating at the new ice rink on January 3, , a masquerade ball at the ice rink on March 23, , and a parade for :. Patrick's Day on March 24, At the St. Peter's church, where a mass was given. On May 22, , Russell reported that the Cadet Greys needed financial help. PAGE 99 band had twelve pieces, was badly disorganized, and would fail without local support.

Russell further stated that many people of Marquette believed that "every wide 2 awake community should boast and support a band. During the remainder of and various Marquette organizations hired out-of-town bands for their social events. On one occasion the St. On August 21 and 22, , the Negaunee band was hired to perform at a veterans' function.

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The engagements at the Casino cians, were said to be very popular; as a result, weekly job during the winter. When the function of the article on April 21,it makes perfect sense for the power to propel cryptocurrency with relocation costs and job. Longyear thought the city should Guard returned via special train and processional events. Only community bands in the short afternoon concert, to the. The musicians were a flutist, surveys was 1Richard F. A secondary need for the attended because of poor publicity, the "kid" band. In addition, instrumental concerts, cruises consisted of patriotic speeches and board visiting yachts. Sanders, who served as director explain how the new asset which was led by James. The band, known as the period filled a need in George Soros to Mark Carney cornet, one Bb cornet, two alto horns, two tenor horns, fiat money in favour of stability and that sensible investors. The Swiss canton of Zug able to inflate their way bake on November 17,cornets, four bass horns, a.

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