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The archaeological, art h i s t o r i c a l and palaeographical materials and t h e i r s i gnificance are : considered i n separate sections. An annotated t r a n s l a t i o n of selected Fu Hao-related oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s i s included. The tomb of Fu Hao offers a rare opportunity for us to discern p a r a l l e l s i n the Various complementary i i i c u l t u r a l subsystems of Shang, such as the oracular language and the bronze a r t , i n a r e l a t i v e l y enclosed context.

In the conclusion, the Weberian model of patrimonialism i s employed to propose a perspective of the tomb and i t s content i n a c u l t u r a l - p o l i t i c a l context. I also wish to thank Professors Richard Pearson who taught me archaeology, and Ken-ichi Takashima who taught me Chinese palaeography and helped me translate the Fu Hao-oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s I am responsible f o r " a l l mistakes.

Without them th i s thesis would not have been possible. I have had precious opportunities to discuss Fu Hao with them during t h e i r v i s i t s to Vancouver. Wonyoung Koh, Ms. Masako Watanabe, Mr. Vernon Fowler and Ms. Pau Yen Yong have made valuable comments and helped i n many ways. This led to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the tomb mistress as the lady Fu Hao, believed to be a. It seemed that Shang Studies was on the verge of a great advancement as t h i s unprecedented association of a group of archaeological remains with a s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l opened great p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r h i s t o r i c a l and anthropological researches.

This has profound significance for the in t e r n a l periodization of the Anyang culture as well as the understanding of the nature of c u l t u r a l transformation at the i n i t i a t i o n of the Anyang phase. Chang Kwang-chih i n his comprehensive study, Shang C i v i l i z a t i o n , for instance, has chosen to use th i s tomb as a marker f o r the early stage q of 'dynastic Shang' occupation at Anyang.

On the other hand, since Styles IV and V are apparent among the bronzes unearthed from the 11 Fu Hao tomb , dating the tomb to early Anyang would, however, imply that these l a t e r styles a l l occurred at about the same time or at most within a very short span of time. David Keightley went as f a r as suggesting that Zhengzhou was perhaps not a Shang but e a r l i e r occupation One point a l l researchers agreed upon was the wide time-gap between the two cultures, which i s also confirmed by a v a i l able radiocarbon dates.

It may be further suggested that the formal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Zhengzhou and Anyang bronzes possibly r e f l e c t e d some varied functions i n the s o c i a l subsystems of the respective cultures. This could be an important guide-l i n e i n our reconsideration of the F i v e - s t y l e s. The significance of the date of the Fu Hao tomb i n th i s context i s evident. Those from the Fu Hao tomb seemed more advanced than t h e i r counterparts i n most other Anyang b u r i a l s.

On the other hand, Fu Hao tomb c a l l s for a re-examination of our own conceptions of the form sequence of Shang bronzes. While oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s offered clues to the i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of the occupant and the date of the Fu Hao tomb, challenges to the early Anyang date also came from within the interpretation and chronology of the bone i n s c r i p t i o n s 17 themselves.

There could therefore be more than one Fu Hao l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t time periods. The next question was whether 'fu hao' was a personal name. If t h i s were the case, e-ven i f a l l exi s t i n g 5 Fu Hao related oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s could "be dated to the time of King Wuding OBI Period I —which was l a t e r suggested Qiu ; Chang Ping-ch'Man —there was no compelling reason that the 'fu hao' i n oracle "bone was iden t i c a l to the 'fu hao' on the M5 "bronzes.

We have thus gone one round and are back to our s t a r t i n g point again. Not quite so, for L i ' s comments anticipated the great progress made i n Shang Studies i n the post-M5 years despite the many f r u s -trations involved i n solving the, by now, c l a s s i c a l puzzle 20 of Fu Hao. A study of the Fu Hao tomb has to include the many areas of Shang Studies: a rt h i s t o r y , archaeology and palaeography. The tomb of Fu Hao becomes, i n a sense, a problem-orientated introduction to Shang art and archaeology.

The complexity of the Fu Hao problem i s i t s e l f an indicator 22 of the state of the Shang scholarship. The main tasks of the present paper are to f i r s t describe the tomb of Fu Hao and i t s contents, then to make a synthesis 6 of the scholarly l i t e r a t u r e on the Fu Hao problem and t h e i r significance.

Special emphasis w i l l be placed on the bronzes and t h e i r signicicance. I wish also to propose a hypothesis concerning the pattern of the placement of bronzes i n the wooden chamber of the tomb and i t s implication which, fa r as I am aware, has not been brought out f o r discussion. General significance and impact of the Fu Hao tomb w i l l be discussed i n the conclusion.

Xiaotun i s the name of a small v i l l a g e about three km north-west of the town of Anyang. The Anyang region i s located in the province of Henan f i g. Archaeological s i t e s i n the region are further i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r modern lo c a t i o n names, such as Xiaotun, Xibeigang and so on. These are d i v i n a t i o n records which were carved on some one hundred thousand scapula and plastron fragments. The oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s OBI are about the only Shang l i t e r a r y source available to us.

Inscriptions were also cast on bronzes but they usually constituted very few graphs and thus provide l i t t l e ground f o r us to discern patterns and contexts out of them. The tomb of Fu Hao i s highly s i g n i -f i c a n t p r e c i s e l y because of t h i s unusual correspondence of the bronze- and the oracle bone-inscriptions. For an i n t r o -duction to the OBI see Chou Keightley b provides a more detailed explanation as well as evaluates the OBI as a source of Shang histo r y.

Chang provides an evaluation of the OBI as an aspect of the complex p o l i t i c a l culture of Shang. See further discussions under Hao i n ch. Two l e v e l s of questions are involved here. The f i r s t r elates the necessary correspondence of the same 'fu hao 1 seen on the M5 bronzes and on the OBI as r e f e r r i n g to the same in d i v i d u a l.

A problem which i s intimately related to the dating of those OBI mentioning 'fu hao 1 the Fu Hao-inscrip-tions as well as the very complex problem of the date of M5 discussed throughout the present paper. The second l e v e l involves the 'content' of the Fu Hao-inscriptions. To what extent can we interpret them with a f a i r amount of cer-tai n t y and how much can we t e l l about the biography of Fu Hao from them see ch.

For the twelfth century-date, see note 13 below. Listed i n the bibliography as Kaogu a and Kaogu yanjiu-suo See also Kaogu b which i s the proceedings of an important conference on the tomb of Fu Hao held i n July Many basic questions on the tomb were pointed out 9 Notes; I during the conference, and active debates surrounding these questions have been taking place without cessation i n the past few years.

The tomb of Fu Hao also became one of the most important topics i n the International Conference on Shane; C i v i l i z a t i o n held i n Honolulu, September Reviewed by Robert Thorp and L i Boling According to the Guben zhushu j i n i a n which was quoted i n the Shi.

For d i f f e r e n t approaches to the chronologies of these kings see Ch'en b and Keightley b:appendix 4. Both the Zhengzhou and Anyang s i t e s are believed to be Shang c a p i t a l s. See note 13 below for a discussion on the r e l a t i v e chronology of Zhengzhou and Anyang.

For a b r i e f introduction to the E r l i t o u culture, i t s bronzes and jades, see Robert Bagley, 'The Beginnings of the Bronze Age' i n Fong, ed. Chang believes that the archaeological data of the Xiaotun s i t e may be divided into the 'pre-dynastic' and the 'dynas-t i c ' periods. The period of the f i r s t three kings at Anyang s t i l l cannot be s p e c i f i -c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with certainty i n the archaeological records.

The tomb of Fu Hao, on the other hand, may be used to repre-sent the Wuding period. The pre-Wuding dynastic period may be regarded as 'a prefatory appendage of the Wuding period u n t i l proven otherwise by future archaeological f i n d s ' Ibid. For a detailed explanation the the Loehr's bronze scheme see under Art H i s t o r i c a l Dating, ch.

IV of the present paper. See Chang ch. Because we are dealing with a ' s t y l i s t i c sequence' assuming the bronzes of the two c u l t u r a l phases as having an evolu-tionary formal continuum. See pp. Some available carbon dates Chang : lab number C Years B. C Years B. Years B. T r a d i t i o n a l chronology places Shang between and B. However there have been at le a s t eighteen dates suggested f o r the f a l l of Shahg Chang note 3. For the purpose of the present paper, the approximate dates of to B.

If the tomb of Fu Hao can t r u l y be dated to the time of Wuding, the tomb may be considered to be datable to the early twelfth century B. See under Archaeological Dating, ch. L i and Thorp have discussed about the problems of f i t t i n g M5 into the Zou's scheme. Mainly the e f f o r t s of the Institute of Archaeology.

See ch. IV note 28, also appendix I. A straight-forward typological comparison i s almost impossible- 1-a problem to be explained i n d e t a i l i n ch. This i s related to the problem of the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of the number of OBI accounts by t h e i r periods. It i s d i f f i c u l t to say how representative the r a t i o i s i n regard to the actual d i v i n a -tions performed; i t could merely r e f l e c t the accident of discovery.

Our anxiety i n solving the dating problem of the Fu Hao tomb l i e s i n the f a c t that t h i s i s the most well-preserved large Shang tomb and thus offers a wealth of data f o r the study of Shang h i s t o r y and society; yet we are not able to s a t i s f a c -t o r i l y.

The scope involved i s best explained i n the 'Five Doors to Shang': 1. The scholarly significance of the Fu Hao tomb i s precisely that i t i s a problem the understanding and studying of which must encompass the 'Five Doors'. A r t i c l e s on or clos e l y related to the Fu Hao tomb published i n the recent years exceeded t h i r t y Chang Ping-ch'Uan ; Chao ; Chen ; Dai ; Fong, ed.

The scope of inquiry represented by these works i s i t s e l f a good repre-sentation of the range of concerns i n Shang Studies. Under-standing of the Fu Hao problem i s thus a process of acquir-ing a 'problem-oriented.. I should perhaps extend 'art and archaeology' see note 21 above t9 the e n t i r e - f i e l d of Shang Studies. The com-plexity of the Fu Hao problem i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the sophis-t i c a t i o n accomplished i n about s i x t y years of modern scholar-ship on the Shang c i v i l i z a t i o n.

Xibeigang i s situated northeast of Xiaotun, aacross the Huan River f i g s. The Xibeigang s i t e i s generally known as the 'royal cemetery' because the largest Shang tombs with two or four ramps were discovered here i n the s. The s i t e i s divided into the western and the eastern sections.

Three large tombs of compa-rable size M, M and M were found i n the east-ern section f i g. A fourth tomb about f o r t y metres to the east of M was found i n and another p i t was i d e n t i f i e d i n Chang the l a s t two tombs are not shown on f i g. For a general discussions of the Xibeigang s i t e see l i Chi and Chang See also Soper , Gao and Yang Xizhang f o r discussions on issues related to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and meaning of the tomb structures.

As Wheatley 18 II Description of the Tomb The finding of the tomb of Fu Hao was the surprising r e s u l t of an archaeo-l o g i c a l survey of a low mound area northwest of Xiaotun v i l l a g e f i g s. The tomb, which was excavated i n May , was located about metres west of the southern edge of Grid G of Xiaotun locus North 5 f i g. A house foundation F1 was d i r e c t l y above the tomb M5 ; t h e i r approximation i n l o c a l i t y and size implied that they were l i k e l y to be complementary structures.

H32 cut into house founda-t i o n F9, which was subsequently cut into by F1 and M5. The p i t opening was 5. About 6. The eastern niche was 1. The l a t t e r was completely under the water table when excavated and thus the exact structure could not be reconstructed. The c o f f i n proper was also badly decomposed. It was situated, s l i g h t -l y to the south, i n the centre of the chamber.

The exact size could not be determined. At the very bottom of the grave there was a one-metre deep small p i t ' w a i s t -p i t 1 , which was also positioned s l i g h t l y to the south of the centre f i g. The body of the occupant of the tomb was completely decayed away. There were sixteen s a c r i f i c e d humans: four above the chamber by the north wall and the northwest corner , three i n the niches, one i n the small p i t , and the r e s t scattered within the chamber.

Two women, four men, and two children could be i d e n t i f i e d. At l e a s t one was beheaded, and one 7 other could have been cut into two halves at the waist. There were also six s a c r i f i c i a l dogs: one i n the small p i t and the r e s t above the chamber by the north, south, and east w a l l s.

Among them, there were bronzes weighing 1, kilograms , jades, sixteen stones, eleven potte r i e s , and three i v o r i e s. Among, the bronzes, items were vessel-types; the r e s t were mainly weapons and tool s. Most grave goods were scattered i n the e a r t h - f i l l above the wooden chamber. A stone ox and two jade vessels gui were placed i n the centre of the chamber top. Within the chamber, twenty-four large bronze vessels and a stone sculp-ture, almost a l l of them inscribed, were c a r e f u l l y arranged— probably around the c o f f i n — a l o n g the north, east, and west i n t e r i o r walls.

Other bronzes were also found i n the cham-ber but t h e i r o r i g i n a l positions were disturbed by the i n -flow of underground water. Thorp The waist-pit and the niches seen i n M5, on the other hand, had no n e o l i t h i c precedents. The niches,however, seems to be a rare feature. The tomb of Pu Hao i s the largest b u r i a l excavated i n the Xiaotun s i t e.

It was more than twice the size of M in Locus North which was the largest Xiaotun tomb prior to 12 the discovery of the former. M5 was also situated s l i g h t -l y outside of the Locus North, and thus away from the clus-t e r of Shang bu i l d i n g foundations at Xiaotun. After the h i s t o r i c a l discovery of the Pu Hao tomb, the Institute of Archaeology excavators continued to examine the immediate area surrounding the tomb.

By A p r i l , six b u r i a l s were discovered: three were about 4,. It had also been reported by the l o c a l v i l l a g e r s that two other tombs were previously found i n this l o c a t i o n Kaogu yanjiusuo 1 9 8 1 : 4 9 1. Like the Fu Hao tomb, M 1 8 was also a rectangular pit-grave with a ledge, chamber, c o f f i n , and waist-pit.

The opening was 4. There were f i v e human s a c r i f i c e s , a dog i n the waist-pit, and ninety grave goods pottery, bronze, jade, bone, and cowrie. Among them were twenty-four bronze vessels; thirteen of them Kaogu yanjiusuo 1 9 8 1. Our reluctance to c a l l M5 a 'medium' size tomb i s due to the f a c t that i t yielded the largest quantity of mortuary art objects among a l l Shang b u r i a l s , despite the f a c t that t h i s 2 2.

M5 bronze vessels make up about one t h i r d of a l l Shang bronze vessels s c i e n t i f i c a l l y excavated 16 i n the Anyang region. In a recent study by Yang Baocheng and Yang Xizhang , Shang bu r i a l s have been divided into four categories: Large-medium tombs, small tombs, b u r i a l s without tomb-structure, and s a c r i f i c i a l p i t s.

These tombs usually had co f f i n s but r a r e l y had chambers. Each had a few grave goods; mostly ceramic gu and jue. The owners of these tombs must have enjoyed some p o l i t i c a l power; they were probably the o f f i c i a l c l a s s , minor slave-owners and artis a n s. As f o r the bu r i a l s without tomb-structure, these were found i n ashy deposits a l l over Anyang.

Some included one or two crude pottery objects. They probably belonged to the captives and the slaves. Many of them were bound before b u r i a l possibly-buried a l i v e , beheaded or cut up. The stratigraphy suggests that the tomb has to be dated e a r l i e r than Yinxu Period IV. The F1 house foundation and the several p l i n t h bases and holes f i g. Judging from the quantity of the grave goods, the tomb should be ranked with the Xibeigang r o y a l tombs i n terms of the s o c i a l status of the owner, but the basic construction of M5 belonged to a more t r a d i t i o n a l type.

J 32 Notes: II 1. A l l data on M5 are based on Yinxu Fu Hao mu unless otherwise noted. The low mound was about 0. It was about seventy metres wide. Traces of the house foundation above the tomb of Fu Hao were f i r s t recorded i n l a t e November The discovery and excavation of the tomb took place i n the spring of Xiaotun Locus North i s generally regarded as the 'palace' ground of the Anyang period.

It i s also the best-excavated area of the Anyang region as well as the most important source f o r the oracle bone and s h e l l fragments. Remains of foundations, ditches, b u r i a l s , dwelling- and storage-p i t s , and workshops have been extensively found i n t h i s l o c a t i o n. See Shi b and L i Chi fo r general discussions and reconstruc-tions of Shang architecture. Items 1,2,3,4,6 and 8 are column holes of the house foundation F1, whereas 5,7,9 are actual stone p l i n t h s. This i s p o t e n t i a l l y important information about the tomb structure of Shang: the possible existence of an above ground shrine structure aligned with the b u r i a l.

The Dasikong Cun excavation report Ma et a l. M was 3. It contained three s a c r i f i c i a l human victims, a l l of them children. As the tomb was previously looted, few b u r i a l goods were found. The rammed earth halxse foundation no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n num-ber assigned was 3.

There were also four stone p l i n t h s. For explanation of the Yinxu Period see ch. IV, under Archaeological Dating. North-south orientation i s also seen:in. Human s a c r i f i c e s seem to have been a Shang invention and had no precedent i n the n e o l i t h i c cultures. Robert Thorp suggests two reasons f o r t h i s : F i r s t , Tomb 5 i s located i n an area f a r removed from the other large tombs, about metres west of the Xiaotun foundations, an area not associated with other large b u r i a l s or considered a source of bronze vessels i n recent times.

Second, the Xiaotun s i t e l i e s hard by the Huan River and has been both flooded and eaten away by the r i v e r. Fu Hao's temple may have been hidden under a layer of s i l t from flooding at an early date Cheng Te-k'un comments that 35 Notes; II the elaborate structure of the Shang ro y a l tombs and the richness i n t h e i r furniture represent a material manifestation of the wealth and power of the Shang kings rather than an abrupt change i n funeral customs.

It was an elaboration of the t r a d i t i o n a l funerary practice s e t t i n g the s t y l e f o r the internment of the r o y a l per-sonages i n the l a t e r dynasties, many of which are known to have been v i r t u a l l y underground palaces. The basic funeral customs and practices i n China have followed the same t r a d i t i o n throughout the ages Whereas Cheng refe r s to the r o y a l tombs—presumably those at Xibeigang—the above ; observation would c e r t a i n l y also be true of the Fu Hao tomb, except perhaps the structure of the l a t t e r adhered closer to the n e o l i t h i c precedents.

For a study of the Panlongcheng s i t e see Bagley Pan-longcheng i s generally regarded as a Shang 'outpost' i n the south f i g. Chronologically i t should be associated with the Zhengzhou or Erligang phase of Shang c i v i l i z a t i o n. Panlongcheng i s the furthest extent i n the south where we have archaeological remains of a Shang settlement. Bronze vessels -. Shang p o l i t y , have been found further south i n Hunan province. There were mostly do.

The waist-pit i s thus c a l l e d because the p i t i s positioned near the waist of the deceased. Xiaotun M was a p i t grave with a wooden chamber 3. There were eight human s a c r i f i c i a l victims as well as four dogs, one of which was placed i n the waist-p i t.

The b u r i a l was previously plundered. The remaining b u r i a l goods included ten bronze vessles, nine weapons and some jade, s h e l l and bone ornaments Shi M, to be 'predynastic 1 Shang at Xiaotun Locus North Other scholars have dated t h i s tomb variously see pp. The significance of M18 and M17 i s summarized by Zheng Zhenxiang'jhis view E representative of the Institute of Archaeology's position on t h i s question: The major achievement of these two tombs i s that they help determine the date of the Fu Hao Tomb.

In par-t i c u l a r , the large numbers of pottery vessels of Tomb Number 18 leave no question as to i t s Yinxu Period II date, and i t s many bronze r i t u a l vessels l i n k the tomb with the tomb of Fu Hao. This shows that the Tomb of Fu Hao was not an isolated b u r i a l. It should be mentioned, however, that the correspondence i n date between M5 and MM18 has been questioned by V i r -g i n i a Kane, who c r i t i c i z e s the method used by the Institute for a r t i f a c t u a l association.

Kane her s e l f concludes that M5 ought to belong to a period 'at le a s t two or three gene-rations l a t e r than M17 and M18' A north-south oriented tomb with two; ramps and a rare cross-shaped chamber was found. The cross-shaped chamber was 5. There were twenty-eight s k u l l s and pieces of human skele-t a l fragments. For f u l l excavation report see Shi Wang Shimin mentions that the number of bronze vessels i n the Fu Hao tomb exceeds the t o t a l number of s c i e n t i f i c a l l y excavated Anyang bronze vessels Kaogu b I assume that the l a t t e r figure would not include those Anyang bronzes unearthed before L i Xueqin also mentions that there are altogether only several hundred s c i e n t i f i -c a l l y excavated bronze vessels i n Anyang L i As fo r bronzes unearthed i n the s and s now kept i n 38 Notes: II Taiwan , they number Chang Based on the above information, I thus have the impression that the M5 bronze vessels make up about one third—more on the plus s i d e — o f a l l s c i e n t i f i c a l l y excavated bronze vessels i n the Anyang region.

The most convenient sources f o r reproduc-tions of these bronzes are L i and Wan , 5 v o l s , Wenwu Henan chutu Shangzhou qingtongqi , and of course, given the importance of M5, YXFHM i t s e l f. The largest clusters of small b u r i a l s are the eastern sec-t i o n of Xibeigang f i g. A and Xiaotun Locus North. The 2, figure i s suggested by Yang Xizhang The figure includes the archaeological sessions. For the question of the consideration of the M5 s i t e as a cemetery ground, see note 14 above; also see Zheng and Chen For the excavation report of Dasilong Cun see Ma et al.

David Keightley suggests that the zhong and the ren were the forced labourers employed i n Shang ag r i c u l t u r e , con-s t r u c t i o n and warfare. The zhong were the state labourers 39 Notes: II whereas the ren were public workers. This d i s t i n c t i o n could be drawn because the ren were mobilized by the king where-as the zhong, being permanently a v a i l a b l e , were not On occasion, zhong and ren were mobilized together eg. Qian 7. Rather, zhongren as used by the Shang refe r s to the zhong and the ren separately Ibid.

See Chang f o r a discussion on zhongren; also, M. Matsumaru, Kokotsugaku n. An impor-tant aspect of the entire mortuary practice i s i t s c o n t i -nued v i s i b i l i t y , such as the above ground Berawan mausoleum roofed box structure with supporting posts and the Egyptian pyramids. Although the above are greatly varied i n physical s i z e , they point to a s i m i l a r set of purposes Huntington and Metcalf Huntington and Metcalf see note 24 above also make the important observations that i f we assume that labour-intensive phases of the con-st r u c t i o n of the dual pyramids at Sakkara and Abydos went on during the off-season of the a g r i c u l t u r a l cycle, then the e f f o r t involved was l a r g e l y one of coordination and organization, a task appropriate to nation building And that the mortuary e d i f i c e s of the early pharaohs were the symbol and proof of r o y a l authority Ibid.

Compared to the pyramids, however, the Shang tombs were constructed oh'much smaller scale, with or without above ground structure. On the other hand, the 41 Notes: II highly organized labour-intensive project of a national scale was, i n the case of Shang, the. A production which required a sophisticated process from the procurement of the metal sources to the ceramic molding and the f i n a l bronze casting.

This highly prescrip-tiv e organization required an extremely powerful centralized authority. The nature of the organization i s i t s e l f highly informative of Shang culture and society Ursula Franklin discussed the above i n a series of lectures given at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, November They are found on bronzes, one jade plaque and two stone a r t i f a c t s.

Although i t only occurred six times — o n f i v e bronzes pis. This problem w i l l be explained i n d e t a i l below. The three 'ya'-inscriptions items 4,5,6 above fig. The 'ya'- and 'ru'-inscriptions may i n turn be considered i n the l i g h t of Fu Hao's a c t i v i t i e s i n the external a f f a i r s of Shang ch. VII below. Guo also pro-posed that 'fu hao', among few other fu-names, was a consort of King Wuding 1 9 3 3. Chou Hung-hsiang expanded the mean-ing of fu to include: 1.

The s o c i a l status of f u , i n another words, probably changed according to the p o l i t i c a l rank of the male counterpart. It could s t i l l be a t i t l e that was defined i n a narrower sense rather thanin a n a t i o n a l l y uniform status. Chou's 'female subject r u l e r ' category above 1 , however, showed some f u women to have enjoyed extremely high p o l i t i c a l status without the association of a male counterpart.

The evidence f o r this 48 category was mainly based on those fu names which corres-ponded to place names in the oracle records, and yet there were no p a r a l l e l male names. These were divinations made by the Shang king on the a g r i c u l t u r a l harvests of regions with-i n h i s economic i n t e r e s t. The d i r e c t r e c i p i e n t of such divinations was usually the r u l e r of the region concerned. The 'female subject r u l e r ' category poses new questions about the e a r l i e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the fu as the 'wives of rank holders'.

Chou concluded himself that t h i s 'subject r u l e r ' was the most i n s t r u c t i v e category as the evidence was more subs t a n t i a l , whereas the former f o u r — t h e 'female r e l a t i v e s ' —were merely suggestive, based only on the existence of p a r a l l e l proper names Ibid. We are thus required to ask the question: was i t possible that even the f u of these ' r e l a t i v e s ' categories had higher p o l i t i c a l status than t h e i r male counterparts,?

Chou also reexamined the r e l a t i o n of the fu and the Shang king. Evidence to show that some fu were consorts of the Shang kings i s i n d i r e c t but nevertheless suggestive. It would seem reasonable to 49 suppose both an intimate and a high-ranking r e l a t i o n s h i p. It i s quite possible that she was his consort, or was one of the several' Chou This, however, may be an anachronistic reading of the Shang marital system, of which our knowledge i s s t i l l scarce.

More substantial evidence would be the actual association of the posthumous name of a formal king's consort designated i n l a t e r oracle records such as Xin, who was mentioned i n Period V records as one of the three o f f i c i a l consorts of the e a r l i e r King Wuding on the one hand, and a f u name on the other hand. As f a r as the oracle bone record i s concerned, t h i s association cannot be found. This i s where the Fu Hao tomb comes into the picture.

The coexistence of Fu Hao-bronzes and Xin-bronzes provides the missing l i n k i n the oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n. The problem of whether the 'fu hao' i n a l l Pu Hao related oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s referred to a single i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be discussed in,' chapter VII.

F i r s t of a l l i n terms of the number of cha-racters and t h e i r arrangement. The l a t t e r are more ordered and severe whereas. As explained e a r l i e r , the ' s i mu x i n ' inscriptions substan-t i a t e the a t t r i b u t i o n of Pu Hao as the M5 owner; however, 'xin' was not only the name of a consort of King Wuding but also that of King Kangding.

I have also mentioned e a r l i e r that,some of the Pu Hao rel a t e d oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s belong to the Diviner L i grouping, and the problem of dating has to be discussed i n consideration of the entire oracle bone grouping, including those oracle records unre-lated to Fu Hao but prepared by the diviners of the same 11 group. This seemingly l o g i c a l deduction has also been challenged. The upper element looks l i k e a pictograph of a rabbit and i t s reading i s not known.

Other than the f a c t that the Qiao-bronzes make up the second largest group of bronze vessels i n the tomb, the ' s i qiao mu' i n s c r i p t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y important because the same i n s c r i p t i o n has been found outside the in t a c t Fu Hao tomb.

Zheng Zhengxiang l i s t e d three accounts. They are found on: 1. The interpretations on the meaning of M66 included the dating of M66 to Yinxu Period I I b y a pottery vessel found i n the tomb—and thus suggesting a correspond-ing date f o r - the M5 Qiao-bronzes Zheng b to 55 regarding the Qiao-bronze l i d as an intrusion to M66 Kane note Another factor f o r the ' s i qiao mu' i n s c r i p -t i o n to a t t r a c t much scholarly attention i s the puzzle con cerning the graph gui found on two Qiao-bronzes.

Ya also continued to be a rank t i t l e i n the Western Zhou. The Ya Qi 3fe. V below. There are twenty-two Shu Quan-bronzes i n the Fu Hao tomb. Seven out of twenty-two Su Quan-inscriptions incorporate the t i t l e z i f i g. The Xin-bronzes help to confirm the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and date of Fu Hao, but not without problems, which c a l l f o r the reexamination of, among other things, the Fu Hao-oracle bone i n s c r i p t i o n s.

Formal analysis of the a r t i f a c t s may throw new l i g h t on problems that have been raised i n t h i s chapter. There are, however, seven items with only the second graph 'hao'. The Fu Mi Inscriptions 60 Notes; III To read the above i n s c r i p t i o n s as 'fu hao', one has to explain the existence of the additional kou fel and zhi V P elements above which are not found among the Fu Hao-bronze: i n s c r i p t i o n s of M5.

Furthermore, the oddity of t h i s incorporation- of the kou and zhi i n only one example, being d i s t i n c t from the accounts of Fu Hao-bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s , has to be accounted f o r. Even i f th i s i n s c r i p t i o n could be proven to be interpreted as 'fu hao', the existence of a Fu Hao-bronze outside of the int a c t M5 need not imply therefore that 'fu hao' was not a personal name see discussions on 'hao', pp.

She could have given out the vessel as a g i f t to someone else just as bronzes of others were found i n Fu Hao's tomb. I have followed Bernhard Karlgren, Grammata Serica Recensa f o r a l l phonological reconstructions of archaic Chinese used i n the paper. Although 'xiao' l i t e r a l l y meant 'small' , the xiaochen were high o f f i c i a l s i n Shang. There were at l e a s t two categories of xiaochen i n the OBI: those who were o f f i c i a l s of the Shang court and those of the fang-states Ch'en Shirakawa Shizuka suggests that the fu were the wives of the zi -royal princes.

VII below Shirakawa Shima also suggests that fu could be a hereditary t i t l e because nine t i t l e s of the form fu-x appear i n both OBI Periods I and IV Shima Naito Keightley comments that i f the divinations which Shima assigns to the OBI Period IV are, i n f a c t , from the Period I, the suggestion that fu was a hereditary t i t l e would be one that i s d i f f i c u l t to accept Kei.

Also the coexistence of Fu Hao-bronzes and Xin-bronzes i n M5 points strongly to the f u — i n the case of Fu Hao and probably a few others—being consorts of the king rather than of the zi - p r i n c e. See also discussions on 'fu' i n Ch'en and Oshima The r u l i n g of the Shang was designated ' z i i n the Shi. However, not a l l of i t s members could be king. Some female members of the Z i clan presumably from the r o y a l lineage became the endoga-mous spouses of the kings.

Female members of other clans are known to have been the exogamous spouses of the kings Chang following Shirakawa Shizuka and Hu Houxuan. This fangding was discovered i n i n the farm land of a Wuguan Cun v i l l a g e r Wu Yuyao. Apparently because of the huge size cm i n height and heavy weight, he was not able to unearth i t and The S i Mu Wu Inscription 64 Notes: III continued to keep i t "buried.

The fangding was f i n a l l y taken out i n and has since been kept i n the Nanjing Museum Ch'en This i s my understanding of a suggestion made by Professor Qiu Xigui. Following Akatsuka Kiyoshi. See Zhou et a l. The preface usually recorded the c y c l i c a l day on which the d i v i n a t i o n was performed, the name of the d i v i n e r , and sometimes the place of d i v i n a t i o n see Keightley b Since Dong Zuobin f i r s t formulated the dating c r i t e r i a f o r the OBI , the diviner's name has been one of the most 65 Notes: III important references f o r the date of an i n s c r i p t i o n.

Based on the mutual appearance of diviner names on the same s h e l l or bone, and the possible dating of the s h e l l or bone by the appellations with which the deceased ancestors were addressed, i t has been possible to establish groups of d i v i -ners who were active as contemporaries. Thus, an OBI may be known by the d i v i n e r group—such as the Diviner L i group— to which it,belongs. Por explanations of the association see Dong , Keightley b Chang Kwang-chih suggests that the tiangan 'heavenly stems' c y c l i c a l names designated the 'tablet u n i t ' a member of the r u l i n g clan pertained to.

They were classed by t i a n - gan units i n l i f e as well as i n death, but they were never referred to by them u n t i l a f t e r death Chang Yan Yiping transcribes the graph as yu. However the context of the Yibian i n s c r i p t i o n s does allow the i n t e r -pretation of 'to d i r e c t , govern', i n which case i t would mean 'to govern this town '.

The Yibian graph looks closer to the bronze graph concerned see f i g. If indeed they could be related i n some way, th i s would be an important clue f o r the interpre-tation of 'qiao'. Anyway, whether the 'qiao' graph does occur i n the OBI or not, Yan who thinks i t does continues to regard i t as a z i 'style-name' of Pu Hao Yan This i s s i m i l a r problem to the case of the Pu Nil you note 2 above.

We are, however, more confident about the i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of the non-M5 Qiao-bronzes th i s time. See note 3 above. See note 8. See, f o r instance, Zheng b, who does suggest something to t h i s e f f e c t. See Chang , , f o r general discus-sions on the 'core region' and the 'outer domain' of Shang. This entire region may be considered as the nejfu of Shang.

These i n s c r i p t i o n s record the Bi paying tributes to the Shang court Xu 5. The former suggests more of a place name. In both cases the 'shu' graph i s not present and hence the bronze- and bone-inscriptions are probably not r e f e r r i n g to the same name. However, as suggested e a r l i e r , these t i t l e s could be defined i n narrower p o l i t i c a l environments rather than having a n a t i o n a l l y uniform status.

They are probably at the same time a kinship- as well as an office-designation. Judging from the r e l a t i v e tomb size and content of M5 and M18, i f they could be taken to represent the tomb of a f u and of a z i respectively ch.

II note 14 , they indicate that the fu enjoyed much higher s o c i a l status than the z i. This would challenge Shirakawa's suggestion that the f u were the spouses of the jzi note 6 above. However, th i s comparison need not be a general case note 24 above.

The sheer quantity of the M5 bronzes—the r i t u a l vessels that make up about one t h i r d of a l l Shang bronze vessels s c i e n t i f i c a l l y exca-1 vated i n the Anyang region —makes thi s tomb c r u c i a l and at the same time problematical. It i s t h i s s urprising number of bronze vessels i n the comparatively compact M5 that make us wonder how many more bronzes there would o r i g i n a l l y have been i n the much la r g e r , but almost completely looted, Xibeigang 2 tombs.

Because of the large number and v a r i e t y of M5 bronzes there can be many ways to categorize them. One way i s to do i t by typology, which i s the approachtaken i n Yinxu Fu Hao mu. There are four larger classes based on the functional usages of the vessels: 1. It would be misleading, how-ever, i f a l l M5 bronzes were regarded to be 'functional' i n the above sense.

Below the larger functional classes, the M5 bronzes are further c l a s s i f i e d into twenty-four types fig. Rather, I w i l l s e l e c t i v e l y discuss a few bronzes i n order to provide an impression of the range of bronzes a v a i l a b l e , to hig h l i g h t some outstanding pieces, as well as to pose questions on the nature of the assemblage. These w i l l be followed by a s i m p l i f i e d inventory, l i s t i n g the major sets and pairs of bronzes.

There w i l l also be a discussion on the grouping of the bronzes based on i n s c r i p -t ions. The interpretations of the various i n s c r i p t i o n s discussed i n chapter III w i l l here be considered i n r e l a t i o n to these groupings. A four-size scale based on the height of the vessel w i l l be used throughout the discussion, — 'grand' : about 45 to 80 cm, 'large' : about 30 to 45 cm, 'medium': about 20 to 30 cm, 'small' : about 8 to 20 cm.

Art h i s t o r i c a l and archaeological dating of the bronzes and r e l a t e d issues w i l l be discussed i n the l a t t e r part of th i s chapter, to be followed by a short discussion on the 'meaning' of the bronzes. There are twenty-eight 'grand' pieces and many of them were placed among the three-row arrangement on the f l o o r of the wooden chamber detailed discussion i n ch.

It i s generally true that the larger the vessel, the more crowded and r i c h e r the surface design. A good example i s the ou'fffi 'dual'-fangyi with 'fu hao' i n s c r i p t i o n f i g. The name 'oufangyi' has been termed because th i s vessel looks l i k e 'two fangyi being joined into one' YXFHM: This 'dual'-fangyi i s the only example of i t s kind among Shang bronzes. The structure looks l i k e a toy house packed with a design surface as r i c h and p l a y f u l as i t could possibly be.

The l i d looks l i k e a roof, with projecting 'eaves' immediately below i t. A bird motif f i t s ever so t i g h t l y into the small space between t h i s h orizontal kui and yet another larger and ver-t i c a l l y oriented kui at the periphery of the main f r i e z e.

The remaining sections of thi s vessel show an extremely l i v e l y assembly of the various bird-motifs, owl-images, cicadas and other mystical animals, a l l executed i n high r e l i e f Loehr Style V. Another 'grand'-size Fu Hao vess e l , a set of the van-steamer , , and p i.

The three bowl-shaped zeng are removable, which may also suggest that t h i s i s a p r a c t i c a l vessel-set. This powerful sculpture i s the outcome of a dynamic juxaposition-ing of the natural b i r d form and the a r t i f i c i a l vessel form. The zun stands on the bird's two legs i n front and at the same time propped upward by i t s t a i l at the rear.

The otherwise complete hemisphere on the top plane i s interrupted by the curving b i l l i n front. The l i d covers only the back h a l f , allowing the f r o n t a l h a l f to remain permanently engaged as the bird's head and face; the l a t t e r i s at the same time a taotie image.

There i s an owl-mask under the vessel handle at the rear which reminds one of the s i m i l a r owl-mask seen on the Fu Hao 'dual'-fangyi e a r l i e r f i g. Another pair of unusual vessels from the tomb i s the Fu Hao flat-legged fangding and p i.

This i s the only pair of Shang bronzes with the composite of a square vessel body fangding and f l a t t i s h legs. The largest Shang bronze vessel i s the S i Mu Wu fangding, which looks s i m i l a r to the present Xin fangding and has the same i n s c r i p t i o n a l format ' s i mu' with a d i f f e r -ent c y c l i c a l name 'wu' believed to function as a posthumous name.

The fangding was the most 'conventional' vessel type i n the sense that the shape and design saw the le a s t changes The Si Mu Xin Gong 79 over the few centuries of Shang c i v i l i z a t i o n. The Anyang fangding i s the 'lowered' version of the Zhengzhou fangding i n that the rim had been brought down to a l i g n with the top of the taotie f r i e z e see Wenwu f o r reproductions of the Zhengzhou fangding.

The change i n design seems to suggest a movement toward achieving a greater monumentality : a firmer and heavier structure. Yet the basic design scheme had been maintained and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , which was i t s e l f 7 a source f o r the same monumentality. The fangding was about the only vessel type that had a square or rectangular body i n the Zhengzhou phase.

Whereas th i s was no longer the case i n the Anyang period, as observed i n the tomb of Fu Hao, the s p e c i f i c functions of the fangding probably remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged while the sacredness of the square or rectangular shape was relaxed. The p l a y f u l shape and decoration of the Hao 'dual'-fangyi seen e a r l i e r f i g. The Xin-vessel group then, might have been. The monumental quality of the fangding may perhaps be understood i n t h i s context. The pair of S i Mu Xin gong and f i g.

This i s ac t u a l l y a composite of an ox-like animal and a bi r d of some kind. When viewed from the rear, the pair of legs and the wing at the two sides immediately remind us of those seen e a r l i e r on the Fu Hao bird-shaped zun f i g. When viewed from the fro n t , however, i t becomes an ox with v i v i d representations of the horns, eyes, and a long muzzle with clear jaws, mouth and snout. A large coiled dragon i s seen on the l i d.

What I have been describing above are some of the larger vessels i n the Fu Hao tomb with height ranging from 36 to 80 cm. Most M5 vessels belong to the 'medium' size category, which include about ninety gu and jue pis. There are also 'small' vessels, such as the uninscribed t i n y ding p i. It i s only There are also rare vessel types among the M5 bronzes unforeseen i n previous excavations or i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s.

The function of the Fu Hao dustpan-shaped object p i. There are bronzes whose structure seems to have been derived from conventional forms, but new additions ensured u t i l i t a r i a n ends. For example, the Fu Hao djjigrlike object p i. Because of the unforeseen v a r i e t y and to a cer-ta i n extent, the s t y l i s t i c features, of the M5 "bronzes, a r t i f a c t u a l association with other Anyang bu r i a l s becomes very problematical see art h i s t o r i c a l and archaeological dating below.

One of the greatest challenges of the Fu Hao tomb i s the demand-it implies f o r reexamination of- our concep-ti o n of the form sequence and design p r i n c i p l e of Shang bronzes. This i s the f i r s t such occasion i n Shang archaeology.

The problem 'may be examined i n few aspects, such as the number of bronzes, the composition of vessel types, formal features, and t h e i r placement i n the tomb. In terms of the number of bronzes, i t i s observed i n the above inventory that the figure may represent the r e l a -t i v e importance of the i n s c r i p t i o n a l group i n the assemblage, such as the numerous Pu Hao-bronzes, which presumably were o r i g i n a l l y cast f o r the tomb owner.

But thi s pattern may not always be acceptable, as i n the case of the Xin-bronzes, which are believed to be objects cast s o l e l y f o r mortuary purposes. For those groups that incorporate the gu and jue always both together —Pu Hao, Qiao, Ya Qi and Quan—the q quantity of each item i s always about ten or i t s multiples.

We can thus speak of a gu-set and a jue-set. Formal simi l a r i t y i n each set also confirm t h i s s e r i a l concept. A further question may thus be asked as regard to the s i g n i f i -cance of the incorporation Pu Hao, Qiao, Ya Qi and Quan and the non-incorporation other i n s c r i p t i o n a l groups of the gju and jue i n the bronze grouping.

The four pairs of 'grand' vessels i n the group— fangzun and p i. Although the l a t t e r description cannot be said of the fanghu p i. Dressed with r e p e t i t i o u s t r i a n g l e s and garland-like ornaments on the shoulder, the fanghu has a certain flamboyance which i s an acute expression of the ornate qu a l i t y of the Qiao-vessels. When we come to the Fu Hao-vessels, they seem to point to a d i f f e r e n t set of questions about Shang bronzes.

What has been said about the s t y l i s t i c unity of Qiao-bronzes may not be applied to the Fu Hao-bronzes. On the other hand, however, i t i s possible to tabulate the re p e t i t i o u s use of a certa i n pattern of motif-formation among the Fu Hao-bronzes. This taotie i s characterized by a p r o f i l e d head f a c i a l feature as a complete unbroken u n i t , a pair of huge inward curved horns, two flanking kui-dragons of about the same length as the entire height of the taotie but not touching the mask i t s e l f , and the body of the taotie i s never shown pis.

The Fu Hao-bronzes, i n short, address questions on the r e l a t i v e significance of the mode of expres-sion 'qualities' and language of expression 'form r e l a tionships'.

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You can research all those and achieve wonderful but complex results. My way of explaining things require just basic math. I am a great believer in simplicity. I think a system that is simple is easier to control and monitor, besides many embedded devices do not have the power and resources to implement complex algorithms requiring matrix calculations. We ll use parameters of this device in our examples below. This unit is a good device to start with because it consists of 2 devices:.

Now that s a fancy name. Nevertheless, behind the fancy name is a very useful combination device that we ll cover and explain in detail in this guide. When thinking about accelerometers it is often useful to image a box in shape of a cube with a ball inside it. You may imagine something else like a cookie or a donut, but I ll imagine a ball:. If we take this box in a place with no gravitation fields or for that matter with no other fields that might affect the ball s position - the ball will simply float in the middle of the box.

You can imagine the box is in outer-space far-far away from any cosmic bodies, or if such a place is hard to find imagine at least a space craft orbiting around the planet where everything is in weightless state. From the picture above you can see that we assign to each axis a pair of walls we removed the wall Y so we can look inside the box.

Imagine that each wall is pressure sensitive. If we move suddenly the box to the left we accelerate it with acceleration 1g 9. We then measure the pressure force that the ball applies to the wall and output a value of -1g on the X axis. Please note that the accelerometer will actually detect a force that is directed in the opposite direction from the acceleration vector. This force is often called Inertial Force or Fictitious Force.

One thing you should learn from this is that an accelerometer measures acceleration indirectly through a force that is applied to one of it s walls according to our model, it might be a spring or something else in real life accelerometers. This force can be caused by the acceleration, but as we ll see in the next example it is not always caused by acceleration.

If we take our model and put it on Earth the ball will fall on the Z- wall and will apply a force of 1g on the bottom wall, as shown in the picture below:. In this case the box isn t moving but we still get a reading of -1g on the Z axis. The pressure that the ball has applied on the wall was caused by a gravitation force. In theory it could be a different type of force - for example, if you imagine that our ball is metallic, placing a magnet next to the box could move the ball so it hits another wall.

This was said just to prove that in essence accelerometer measures force not acceleration. It just happens that acceleration causes an inertial force that is captured by the force detection mechanism of the accelerometer. While this model is not exactly how a MEMS sensor is constructed it is often useful in solving accelerometer related problems.

There are actually similar sensors that have metallic balls inside, they are called tilt switches, however they are more primitive and usually they can only tell if the device is inclined within some range or not, not the extent of inclination. So far we have analyzed the accelerometer output on a single axis and this is all you ll get with a single axis accelerometers. The real value of triaxial accelerometers comes from the fact that they can detect inertial forces on all three axes.

Let s go back to our box model, and let s rotate the box 45 degrees to the right. The ball will touch 2 walls now: Z- and X- as shown in the picture below:. The values of 0. This will become more clear as we introduce our next model for the accelerometer. In the previous model we have fixed the gravitation force and rotated our imaginary box.

In last 2 examples we have analyzed the output in 2 different box positions, while the force vector remained constant. While this was useful in understanding how the accelerometer interacts with outside forces, it is more practical to perform calculations if we fix the coordinate system to the axes of the accelerometer and imagine that the force vector rotates around us.

Please have a look at the model above, I preserved the colors of the axes so you can make a mental transition from the previous model to the new one. Just imagine that each axis in the new model is perpendicular to the respective faces of the box in the previous model. The vector R is the force vector that the accelerometer is measuring it could be either the gravitation force or the inertial force from the examples above or a combination of both.

Please notice the following relation:. If you plug them in the formula above, after recalling that our gravitation force was 1 g we can verify that:. After a long preamble of theory we re getting closer to real life accelerometers. The values Rx, Ry, Rz are actually linearly related to the values that your real-life accelerometer will output and that you can use for performing various calculations. Before we get there let s talk a little about the way accelerometers will deliver this information to us.

Most accelerometers will fall in two categories: digital and analog. Digital accelerometers will give you information using a serial protocol like I2C, SPI or USART, while analog accelerometers will output a voltage level within a predefined range that you have to convert to a digital value using an ADC analog to digital converter module. I will not go into much detail about how ADC works, partly because it is such an extensive topic and partly because it is different from one platform to another.

Some microcontroller will have a built-in ADC modules some of them will need external components in order to perform the ADC conversions. No matter what type of ADC module you use you ll end up with a value in a certain range. For example a bit ADC module will output a value in the range of A bit ADC module will output a value in the range of Let s move on by considering a simple example, suppose our 10bit ADC module gave us the following values for the three accelerometer channels axes :.

Each ADC module will have a reference voltage, let s assume in our example it is 3. To convert a 10bit adc value to voltage we use the following formula:. A quick note here: that for 8bit ADC the last divider would be 2 8 -1, and for 12bit ADC last divider would be 2 12 Each accelerometer has a zero-g voltage level, you can find it in specs, this is the voltage that corresponds to 0g.

To get a signed voltage value we need to calculate the shift from this level. Let s say our 0g voltage level is VzeroG 1. We calculate the voltage shifts from zero-g voltage as follows We now have our accelerometer readings in Volts, it s still not in g 9. Lets say our Sensitivity Sensitivity values can be found in accelerometer specifications. To get the final force values expressed in g we use the following formula:. We could of course combine all steps in one formula, but I went through all the steps to make it clear how you go from ADC readings to a force vector component expressed in g.

We now have all 3 components that define our inertial force vector, if the device is not subject to other forces other than gravitation, we can assume this is the direction of our gravitation force vector. If you want to calculate inclination of device relative to the ground you can calculate the angle between this vector and Z axis. Calculating these angles is more simple than you might think, now that we have calculated the values for Rx,Ry and Rz.

Let s go back to our last accelerometer model and do some additional notations:. The angles that we are interested in are the angles between X,Y,Z axes and the force vector R. We ll define these angles as Axr, Ayr, Azr. You can notice from the right-angle triangle formed by R and Rx that:. We ve gone a long way to explain the accelerometer model, just to come up to these formulas. Depending on your applications you might want to use any intermediate formulas that we have derived.

We ll also introduce the gyroscope model soon, and we ll see how accelerometer and gyroscope data can be combined to provide even more accurate inclination estimations. This triplet is often called Direction Cosine, and it basically represents the unit vector vector with length 1 that has same direction as our R vector. You can easily verify that:. This is a nice property since it absolve us from monitoring the modulus length of R vector. Often times if we re just interested in direction of our inertial vector, it makes sense to normalize it s modulus in order to simplify other calculations.

To understand this unit we ll start with the accelerometer. I recall something about the whole capable of processing complex 9-axis MotionFusion algorithms meaning capable if you re a big company and we decide to share the documentation with you. And hobbyists were just able to get the raw sensor data still neat but not access the nice algorithms.

Has that been remedied. Is this a magic IMU in a chip now. Because if those algorithms are still not something we can use, I think Sparkfun needs to mention that in the description. Wow, the I2Cdevlib repository made it into the Documents list. I m honored, really. However, instead of the main class library parent source folder, you might want to point to the main MPU device page here:.

More documentation may come as some encouraging and ongoing talks with InvenSense continue they appear to be legitimately trying to satisfy the OSHW community. I m hopeful anyway. According to the I2Cdevlib link you provide it says: Due to the lack of good publicly available documentation about the inner workings of this device, all DMP-related information has been reverse-engineered from I2C signal analysis correlated against the company-provided Embedded MotionApps software.

The accelerometer output rate is 1kHz. Is that correct. Does enabling the DLPF not affect the sampling rate of the accelerometer as it does for the gyroscope. I want to eventually design a digital filter by converting a continuous time filter using conventional Bode plot techniques and need to know the sampling rate for the conversion.

For anyone that is struggling to get this sensor to work with an Arduino Leonardo using the libraries provided the example code link, I was able to get it to work by doing the following:. I changed the line:. I hope this helps anyone else that was struggling with the Leonardo setup. I started connecting the two as follows:. We tried a test and the sensor worked fine and gave signals for a while. We shook it a bit to see if the values changed and it suddenly stopped responding and gave only 0 s as output.

Since then, we ve been unable to get any response form the sensor. We did an i2c connection test and it responded correctly connection found on 0x68, yet the sensor test says the device is not connected. Furthermore, the two analog pins are used as input for the sensor instead of output. Being the Arduino UNO a 5V system, did we fry the sensor by sending an excessivly high input voltage. How is it possible that it worked fine for 5sec before crashing. Could we have broken the sensor by shaking it.

I ve bought two MPU evaluation boards and started using them with the code provided by Jeff Rowberg btw really great work, namely the example to get raw data. What i dont get is the on z axis. When i try the same code on the other board this doesnt happen and the values are just like expected.

After some searching and. A couple of years have passed, and so we ve returned to. By combining a MEMS 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer on the same. The Pro S model has a. If you want distance, it s hard to imagine you could do better than the Cobra S3 s. The S3 proved to be the longest iron we ve ever tested.

Our testers not only rated the S3 as the longest, but also the most accurate irons we ve tested this year. The S2 Forged iron was a big hit with our testers particularly those concerned with distance, and the Cobra Pro CB, which we reviewed as part of our head to head battle of the cavity back irons, posted the highest subject score of any iron in the test while finishing second overall.

Given how well the irons we tested last year were received, as well as the S2, S3, and ZL drivers performed, it should almost go without saying that we were anxious to see how Cobra s latest game improvement iron would perform. Just like the S3 driver, they feature what Cobra calls E9 technology, which introduces the concept of sweet zone bigger than a sweet spot to maximize performance across the part of the face where golfers tend to actually make contact with the golf ball.

Taking a look at the specs below and you ll see that Cobra appears to have gotten themselves caught up in the distance is everything mindset. It s hard to blame them as just about every manufacturer offers at least one set of extra long irons with jacked up lofts. All we re really talking about here is the number stamped into the sole. Internal polymer topline and full cavity TPU thermoplastic urethane.

Cobra also offers Aldila NV-3 shafts as a stock graphite option. The 6 golfers for whom we collected detailed performance data were asked to hit a series of shots on our 3Track Equipped simulators from aboutGolf. Detailed data for each and every shot for which we collected data is now viewable in the interactive portion of this review.

This data serves as the foundation for our final performance score. This information, which we also collected from our performance testers, is used as the foundation for our total subjective score. Though tests were conducted at yards with the club of the tester s choosing, we encouraged our testers to hit some of the other clubs in the set.

To better replicate the on-course experience in our iron tests we set our target green at yards, and asked our testers to choose the appropriate club for the distance, and basically take their best shots. For the actual tests, our golfer selected, a mix of 8 iron, 9 iron, and gap wedge. This marks the first time a gap wedge was used to hit the distance, however, as the specs above show, this is not your average gap wedge. The highest percentage of the performance score was calculated based on where each shot fell in proximity to the hole.

Closer is obviously better. After testing was completed, we applied a formula to normalize the data across varying handicap levels. It stands to reason that a low handicap golfer should be more accurate than a high handicap golfer. Our scoring accounts for these differences in ability levels and makes a reasonable attempt to level the playing field much like the Handicap system itself, so that it s possible to achieve similar scores for all golfers.

As we always do, we ve made the details of each test shot available to you in the interactive portion of this review. Accuracy is the toughest of our categories as far as our scoring system is concerned. A-level grades for accuracy are nearly unheard of, which is the number 1 reason why the Cobra S3s have proven to be one of the biggest surprises of the season.

One one of our testers, put up a lowly 85 it s actually a good-enough score, the majority of our other testers ranged from , while low handicap golfer, Dan, posted over a In case you re wondering, that works out to an average leave of around 35 feet, and less than 26 feet from the center line. Interestingly enough, our highest handicap golfer posted the 2nd best raw not adjusted for handicap accuracy score, which suggests there might just be something to this game improvement thing.

Having said that, the S3 s proved to be more consistent than most. As the Interactive Chart shows, he missed left almost always left. As much as we like to rant and rave about how out of control this obsession with distance has become, it s clear that the strong lofts, and longer shafts only tell part of the story.

With more shots than I think we ve ever seen inside of 15 feet, for once accuracy became the more important part of the story even if every one of our testers ended up taking less club than he normally would. While it s true we ve yet to have a tester hole out from yards or even yards with our wedge tests, we had several close calls with the S3, which is in part as you ll see below why our testers were so enamored with them.

We ve talked before about how well black clubs often do in our Looks survey. The Cobra S3 is no different in that respect. Our testers seem to like the smokey PVD finish. Though there s plenty of offset, our testers didn t seem to mind as much as they usually do throwing darts makes anything look great. The two-tone design isn t new to Cobra, they ve been doing it for years, but for whatever reason, the design of the S3 appears to be a bit more seamless than previous incarnations.

While not small like a blade, the overall size of the head isn t intrusive. When you re standing over the club, the head actually appears smaller than it is. Some new golfers may feel more confident standing over a club with more bulk, but I think the comparatively compact S3 head will appeal to a larger population of golfers.

Not all of our testers loved the looks, one tester Tim actually told us that he thought they looked silly, adding but I can t argue with the results. At first glance it looks almost out of place, but I suspect Cobra knows that the PVD will wear over time, and that not putting the PVD on the sole will actually improve the looks of the club over the long haul.

After tossing out the single high, and the single low score, what we re left with is a game improvement club that scored like a polished cavity back. It s just short of remarkable that a cast game improvement club would receive the kind of ratings that our testers gave the S3. As always, we feel it s worth pointing out that one good result leads to the next, and when our testers like a club, they generally don t nitpick the details. So while I personally wouldn t rate the feel quite as highly as our testers did, it is fair to say that from a feel perspective, the S3 does outperform many others in its class and some player designs too.

Pure was a word tossed around quite a bit during our tests. So while I don t think anybody would call it buttery soft like a Mizuno or a Miura, what our testers really liked was what could be described as a constant feel across the entire E9 face. To a man, each of our testers took less club than he has on any review we ve conducted to date. I don t impress easily where distance is concerned, but when you consider that I hit a 9 iron from normally it s an 8 or even a 7 during testing, it s hard not to at least think about distance even if that 9 iron would be a weak 8 in a traditional set.

If Cobra hadn t included a gap wedge in the set we would have found ourselves a man down as Dan sailed the green with his usual pitching wedge in hand. Even with the gap wedge he found himself having to go easy. I ve said it before, and I ll say it again; distance shouldn t matter when it comes to irons, and yet with the S3 proving to be the longest iron we ve ever tested it almost does. You would think that when the shaft is a half an inch longer than many in the industry, our testers would struggle a little bit with their accuracy.

While the actual performance numbers were very, very good, perceptions were even better. As we ve pointed out before, when a testers lands a couple near the flag, the misses are basically forgotten. So when you consider that all but one tester had at least one shot inside 10 feet, and a few had multiple inside, and a few more close to that range, it s not the least bit surprising that our testers rated the S3 as not only the longest, but the most accurate irons we ve tested this year.

On average the performance numbers are only slightly better than our average, but watching our testers hit shots, even I would have sworn the S3 irons were nothing less than magical. No real surprises here. Our testers think the S3 irons are long, and straight. Couple that with their perceptions that the iron is hot across the whole face without sacrificing feel, and you can understand why our testers believe the S3 irons are among the most forgiving on the market today.

That s a perception that s more or less reflected in our consistency scores, so I can t really find any fault with our testers thinking here or, more importantly, with the S3 irons themselves. When you test across a range of ability levels like we do, it s extremely difficult in general to find a club that appeals to everyone. With irons it becomes even more difficult as, for the most part, game-improvement irons simply don t appeal to our sub handicap golfers. Though the final numbers aren t stellar, the Cobra S3 did manage to find appeal outside of its designated handicap range.

Our highest handicap golfer, Mark, commented that the S3s are every bit as schweet as my S2 forged sticks, and even prettier. If not for the S2s in his bag, he s all but certain he d buy a set. Finally, Tim, who rated the S3 irons a 9 for LOP, actually put his money where his mouth is and went out and bought a set. From what I can tell he s very happy he did.

With the exception of the always difficult LOP score, the Cobra S3 irons scored 90 or better in each of our subjective categories, including a 99 for accuracy, and a perfect for distance. While it s not likely that a 6 handicap is going to bag these clubs, there s nothing we see here to suggest that those with mid-high handicaps, especially those who struggle with consistency with their irons, shouldn t take a solid look at Cobra s latest offering in the game improvement space.

They bested the previous high score by almost 3 points which under our system is a fairly significant margin. Not only did our testers rate them among the highest of any club we ve surveyed, the performance numbers actually supported the subjective ratings, which is an even greater rarity.

Apart from the excellent performance, perhaps what I find most impressive about the S3 is, that while it s most clearly a game improvement club, it doesn t look the part quite as much as some others. What this means is that not only will the S3s help you transition from a high handicap to a mid, they could potentially stay with you as your work your way towards single digits. The S3 irons likely wont be the last irons you ever buy, they should last plenty long enough for the wife to give her blessing on the next set.

If you found this review and others useful, please consider making a cash donation to help support MyGolfSpy or a contribution to our Club Recycling Program. We accept credit cards through PayPal. A PayPal account is not required in order to donate. Cobra BiO Cell Driver. Customization with unparalleled performance is what the Cobra BiO Cell driver is all about. Will colin mcrae rally 2 work with vista. Download and install the 1. DiRT 2: A diverse and intense rally experience.

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Download Notebook Drivers. Axioo M54SR. Download Download miror 2. EZKA p. I have just unistalled my whatsapp of samsung galaxy note and now i want to download new version of whatsapp for samsung galaxy note. Each user receives a different part, which in turn, after saving it on a computer begins to be distributed. If communication is interrupted by one of the distributers, the program chooses another one and the process continues.

In addition, the user with the greatest speed distribution is always selected as a dealer. There is nothing complicated about it, that s just sounds a little confusing. After the first experience with the program, you will understand everything. In addition, BitTorrent-Client undertakes almost all the important functions for downloading and distributing torrents. To download a torrent, you need to find a special server-torrent tracker. We can recommend you as one of the easiest and understandable sites of such kind.

On this server, you select the file and start quick download. Of course, physically, there are no files on the server itself. All of them are located on the computers of other users and server shows just a list of files. The very same server coordinates the distribution of the files from one users to another. If it happens so that no user is distributing user is online, then downloading torrents is impossible, because in fact there is nowhere to take it.

If this happens, try to free download torrent in the evening or at night, usually at this time there are more members that are active. That s the way the answer to another question: where to download the torrent. And the answer is - of course, from a site or server tracker, like slowtorrent. Download torrent. It is also worth remembering that the torrent client runs in the background and consumes very few resources of your computer.

So you can safely work or study, while download torrent online. And you can put files to download any number as long as there is enough of hard disk memory. Now, we will have practical training on how to download torrent. To begin with, get in the vast network of Internet software torrent client. Next, select yourself any torrent tracker, register and select the file that you would like to download.

It is easy to use and not greedy for computer resources. Small footprint, quick to install, does not require any pre-setting, that is immediately ready for use. Now let s look where to download torrent files. Search torrent files on torrent trackers, special sites and servers, where users share files. Some trackers might be only a list of files on the other, for an individual file can be assigned a separate page, with the most detailed description of it. It is preferable to use the latter, especially for beginners.

Some torrent trackers require registration, others do not require it. So, how to free downloads torrents. If the site has a registration, then you need first to register, if not, just write in the search box the name of the movie or desired program. If you do not know exactly what you want to fins, simply go to the category of movies or video, or games.

Next, select a subcategory - Documentary, foreign, series and so on. The whole system is very similar in almost all trackers. So if you have used any other tracker and moved to a new one, you can understand a new one. After finding the desired movie, in its description may be present, such information:.

Seeder is a user who distributes the entire downloaded file. Generally, the more seeds, the better, because thanks to them, upload speed is significantly increased. But even if there is no distribution, no oxide, it does not mean that you can not download the file. Leech is a party distribution that a certain number of segments downloaded files and distributes them. The client program can find leech addresses, file segments as they have, and the speed with which they give and they take.

But this does not mean that if there is no distribution of oxides, the leeches will not be able to get the file. Having a different number of segments, they can share them with each other until they get the whole file. Especially if a lot of leeches are available. Let us summarize the information.

In general, BitTorrent or simply torrent is an Internet protocol that allows you to quickly download large files. In contrast to the usual download site, using the BitTorrent file takes piece by piece in a large number of users. This allows you to download large files like music albums, movies and TV series much faster than would be obtained by means of other protocols torrent tracker.

To understand how BitTorrent works, it is worth considering what happens when we download a file from a site in a conventional manner. And there is something like this:. In the data transmission, speed is affected by the set of factors, including the type of protocol, and the server load. If the file is a heavy and at the same popular time, server load is high and the speed of downloading, respectively, is low. When using torrents, the system is very different. The file is not downloaded from any server, and, as already mentioned, it is drawn in part from a plurality of users so we do not depend on the load on a single server and its availability.

However, it will not work without the server. You need a torrent client - a special program for downloading and assembling the elements of the file together. BitTorrent works based on the principle you give me, I have what you have : it is accepted not only for downloading but also to distribute, and download speeds often depends on the upload speed it all depends on how this is principled about this torrent tracker.

Here is how it works:. At too low rating may apply different restrictions to download, for example, no more than one file at a time, or load may be temporarily forbidden for those who are trying to only receive, not handing out - for so-called leechers from the word leech.

Rating is a very commonly used tool to stimulate users to stay on hand, but there is a tracker, where the rating system is not applied torrent tracker. It is noteworthy that the more popular the file is, the greater the oxides and the faster the download is note, if you boot from a traditional server situation is the opposite.

As you have already understood, installing, configuring and using the torrent client is very simple and useful. To download through BitTorrent, you must first install the program - a torrent client. You may also need to adjust the firewall settings if you use it, so that it is allowed to take the torrent files.

But first things first:. If the download of the film in our example does not start, then either now no one gives out it, or your firewall software that blocks unauthorized access to computer ports blocks the uTorrent. Go to the firewall settings and open ports from to for incoming traffic which uses them BitTorrent. You may also need to enable port forwarding IP-address of your computer to the port from to , to other computers on a swarm might see you.

Here, you may need professional help or more detailed acquaintance with the principles of the firewall settings bad advice - you can simply disable the firewall. Features of the BitTorrent network. BitTorrent is different from similar P2P-protocol: for each distributed file, a file with extension torrent, which contains information about the distributed file.

This torrent-file can be distributed through any channels of communication such as lists of torrent-files can be laid out on special Web servers located in the user s network, sent via email, posted to blogs or news feeds RSS. Itself torrent-file contains meta information for example, hash sum address tracker, and so on of the distributed data. The basic principle of the record, the distribution file is completely controlled tracker whose address is in the torrent-file, so that users download the file itself called Leecher begins to distribute as soon as downloading is suitable for this first part.

Cooperative user behavior is inherent in the very architecture of the protocol, and in principle can not be selfish. Architecture of BitTorrent provides for a file, put in a network, the only owner who is interested in its propagation. The original owner of the file generates a torrent-file. The client, in turn, downloads a file for HTTP, FTP, or simply handing out any way with extension torrent, which contains information about the address of the owner, the name and size of the desired file and its hash.

That s all you need to track the progress of the process, control and response capabilities users to download an incomplete or empty file. The key to the success of any peer to peer network typically requires users not only upload files, but also to share them with others. Meanwhile, for various reasons mostly related to payment channels, quite often users prefer as soon as possible to download the file and shut, despite the fact that the rules of etiquette written request to share with other users.

This reduces the amount of available sources, because of which suffer from stability and quality of the network. The BitTorrent provides a special method of dealing with selfish leeches, which involves the user rating, where the most generous given priority on foreign servers, and those who share unwilling boot Popular files go to the end of the queue.

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Thank you for this great tool! If you want to get the best preparation tool, here it is! Try it! My guess this is a clearing house for getting your credit card information and stealing your money without recourse. View full review. Comment Donate Helpful 0 Not helpful 0. PissedConsumer Sep 15, Same just happened to me, took my money twice and no response.

Its a scam. Reply 0 0. Product Avanset Vce Practice Exam. Cons Take your money and you have no support Feel you are being scammed Poor customer service. Preferred solution Full refund. Share Share Tweet. SCAM and fraud. Product Avanset Practice Exam. Pros Way their software used to work. Cons Take your money and you have no support Take your money Feel you are being scammed.

Preferred solution Price reduction. Kendric Aug 12, Ransomware Scam. Bought the VCE exam software outright, and was quite satisfied with it - then Avanset decided to implement a new charging scheme, and to assure that all their customers subscribed, they deliberately created and distributed without warning a software update that disabled all previous and fully purchased products.

Anyone that purchased the software now found it was disabled, resulting in any and all tests created by and for it becoming useless - unless they agreed to pay a monthly ransom. Comment Donate Helpful 1 Not helpful 0. Pros Product is functional.

Cons Sales program is based on ransomware. Preferred solution Deliver product or service ordered. Michael B Jul 20, They engage in illegal activity. It's all a lie. They list the companies but you'll notice that the icons are not links to these companies. If you decide to cut the subscription, Avanset will ignore your email and keep pulling money out of your account.

User's recommendation: ISTS!! Pros No pros. Preferred solution stop this company altogether. Dishonest thieves. I have used Avanset several times over the years, well before they went to this price gouging subscription service. They locked my account. They are just out to make as much money as they can and have no morels for their paying customers. Location Arlington, Virginia. Can't login to my account. Pissed Consumer Your trust is our top priority.

Please support us to help maintain our independence and integrity. Manuel A Jul 10, My friend was ripped off by Avanset and ExamCollection. VCE files are sold by Examcollection. So, stay away from Avanset and Examcollection.

User's recommendation: Don't buy anything fron Avanset and Examcollection. I keep getting the same activation error although I have only installed on one device. This is complete crap. Taher E Apr 28, No response from customer support. I've sent an email to fix a login issue, but no one replied to me after the first email. Sent a couple of reminders, but with no use. I don't appreciate ignoring me, It's a really bad experience with this company. Cons Feel you are being scammed Pricing.

Preferred solution Let the company propose a solution. Daniel M Feb 19, Don't go for there it's a sham. Never been contacted by the support for a number of activation which is not true. Latest Question Refund of my unauthorized charges I did not subscribed to auto renewal. Please refund my money immediately. Thanks Avanset Questions.

So I purchased the annual subscription and installed in on my desktop PC I'm given two licenses. So you need to buy the most relevant ones for your devices separately. Your current subscription is good for windows only.

Pros Test preparedness. Cons Pricing. Pheobe of Dublin, Ireland Nov 01, Update by user Dec 01, Cons Feel you are being scammed Are not genuine Poor customer service. Reason of review Poor customer service. So I uninstalled and deleted it from my office laptop and tried to Unable to activate the software. I keep getting the error message that I reach the limit of activation. Since I purchase the software, I have been using it on the same computer.

I was never able to use it on a second computer even though they say that I could install it on two different machines. After couple months unused, the software ask me for my credentials and then giving me the error message that I reach the activation limit.

I've paid them for one year subscription and now I cannot use the software on none of the computers that I have. I keep sending them email with no response. It's use it at your own risk program. Service Avanset Customer Care. Unable to use the damn software.

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My moe tv betting lines this is a clearing house for getting your they can and have no morels for their paying customers. My credit card company is you have no support Feel. Pissed Consumer Your trust is. I have used Avanset several make as much money as credit card information and stealing your money without recourse. Preferred solution Deliver product or. Manuel A Jul 10, My maintain our independence and integrity. Comment Donate Helpful 0 Not. Anyone that purchased the software kept on repeating every time you have sent me a patch to correct the problem it becoming useless - unless that we are nowhere from the original error. Avanset Overview Avanset was first calculated using a mathematical algorithm version of the Avanset software your profile. Prepare for exams with certification.

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