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Fixed-limit also called just Limit is a type of betting structure for a poker game where the amount of all bets and raises in any given betting round is fixed. This is in contrast to pot-limit and no-limit betting. Most commonly, fixed-limit games have two bet sizescalled the small bet and the big bet. Such games are usually written as having limits of "small-slash-big". In Hold 'em and Omaha games, the big bet is usually twice the size of the small bet, though in other variants such as 7-Studit may be more.

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Spacecraft mod 1-3 2-4 betting system

Students develop an understanding of the idea that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water. Students are expected to develop an understanding of patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; cause and effect; scale, proportion, and quantity; energy and matter; and systems and systems models are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In the fifth grade performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in developing and using models, planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematics and computational thinking, engaging in argument from evidence, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information; and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen. Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties. Examples of properties could include color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, and solubility; density is not intended as an identifiable property.

Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances. Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water. Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.

Examples of systems could include organisms, ecosystems, and Earth. The geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are each a system. Describe and graph the amounts of salt water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.

Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from Earth. Assessment does not include other factors that affect apparent brightness such as stellar masses, age, stage. Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in the length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.

With increased maturity students in third through fifth grade are able to engage in engineering in ways that is both more systematic and creative. As in earlier and later grades, engineering design can be thought of as three phases. It is important to keep in mind, however, that the lively process of design does not necessarily follow in that order, as students might think of a new solution during the testing phase, or even re-define the problem to better meet the original need.

Nonetheless, they should develop their capabilities in all three phases of the engineering design process. Defining the problem in this grade range involves the additional step of specifying criteria and constraints. Criteria are requirements for a successful solution and usually specify the function that a design is expected to perform and qualities that would make it possible to choose one design over another. Constraints are the limitations that must be taken into account when creating the designed solution.

In the classroom constraints are often the materials that are available and the amount of time students have to work. Developing possible solutions at this level involves the discipline of generating several alternative solutions and comparing them systematically to see which best meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

This is a combination of phases two and three from the K—2 level. This is the same practice as in science inquiry, except the goal is to achieve the best possible design rather than to answer a question about the natural world. Another means for improving designs is to build a structure and subject it to tests until it fails; noting where the failure occurs and then redesigning the structure so that it is stronger.

Connections with other science disciplines help students develop these capabilities in various contexts. For example in third grade students integrate their understanding of science into design challenges, including magnetic forces 3-PS , the needs of organisms 3-LS , and the impacts of severe weather 3-ESS In fourth grade students generate and compare multiple solutions to problems related to conversion of energy from one form to another 4-PS , communication 4-PS , reducing the effects of weathering and erosion 4-ESS , and geologic hazards 4-ESS In fifth grade students design solutions to environmental problems 5-ESS By the end of fifth grade students should be able to achieve all three performance expectations ETS, ETS, and ETS related to a single problem in order to understand the interrelated processes of engineering design.

These include defining a problem by specifying criteria and constraints, developing and comparing multiple solutions, and conducting controlled experiments to test alternative solutions. Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. Students in middle school continue to develop understanding of four core ideas in the physical sciences. The middle school performance expectations in the physical sciences build on the K—5 ideas and capabilities to allow learners to explain phenomena central to the physical sciences but also to the life sciences and earth and space sciences.

The performance expectations in the physical sciences blend the core ideas with science and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts to support students in developing useable knowledge to explain real-world phenomena in the physical, biological, and earth and space sciences. In the physical sciences, performance expectations at the middle school level focus on students developing understanding of several scientific practices.

These include developing and using models, planning and conducting investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematical and computational thinking, and constructing explanations and using these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. Students are also expected to demonstrate understanding of several engineering practices, including design and evaluation.

How does thermal energy affect particles? By the end of middle school, students will be able to apply an understanding that pure substances have characteristic properties and are made from a single type of atom or molecule. They will be able to provide molecular-level accounts to explain states of matters and changes between states.

The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect; scale, proportion, and quantity; structure and function; interdependence of science, engineering, and technology; and influence of science, engineering and technology on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In these performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models and in obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

Students use these science and engineering practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. What stays the same and what changes? By the end of middle school, students will be able to provide molecular-level accounts to explain that chemical reactions involve regrouping of atoms to form new substances, and that atoms rearrange during chemical reactions. Students are also able to apply an understanding of design and process of optimization in engineering to chemical reaction systems. The crosscutting concepts of patterns and energy and matter are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In these performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, analyzing and interpreting data, and designing solutions. The performance expectations in the topic Forces and Interactions focus on helping students understand ideas related to why some objects will keep moving, why objects fall to the ground, and why some materials are attracted to each other while others are not.

Students also apply ideas about gravitational, electrical, and magnetic forces to explain a variety of phenomena, including beginning ideas about why some materials attract each other while other repel. In particular, students will develop understanding that gravitational interactions are always attractive but that electrical and magnetic forces can be both attractive and negative. Students also develop ideas that objects can exert forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact, through fields.

Students are also able to apply an engineering practice and concept to solve a problem caused when objects collide. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect; systems and system models; stability and change; and the influence of science, engineering, and technology on society and the natural world serve as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In these performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in asking questions, planning and carrying out investigations, designing solutions, and engaging in argument and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Students develop an understanding of important qualitative ideas about energy, including that the interactions of objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of transfer of energy from one object or system of objects to another and that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system.

Students understand that moving objects have kinetic energy and that objects may also contain stored potential energy, depending on their relative positions. Students will also come to know the difference between energy and temperature and begin to develop an understanding of the relationship between force and energy. Students are also able to apply an understanding of design to the process of energy transfer. The crosscutting concepts of scale, proportion, and quantity; systems and system models; and energy are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

These performance expectations expect students to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, planning investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, designing solutions, and engaging in argument from evidence and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas in PS3.

Students are able to describe and predict characteristic properties and behaviors of waves when waves interact with matter. Students can apply an understanding of waves as a means to send digital information. The crosscutting concepts of patterns and structure and function are used as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. These performance expectations focus on students demonstrating proficiency in developing and using models, using mathematical thinking, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information and using these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, three-dimensional ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.

Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society. Examples of new materials could include new medicines, foods, and alternative fuels. Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

Examples of models could include drawings and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.

Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry. Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electrical and magnetic forces. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.

Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

Examples of investigations could include firsthand experiences or simulations. Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.

Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems. Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.

Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample. Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave. Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.

Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in Wi-Fi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.

Students in middle school develop understanding of key concepts to help them make sense of the life sciences. The performance expectations in middle school blend core ideas with science and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts to support students in developing useable knowledge across the science disciplines. While the performance expectations in middle school life sciences couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include the use of many science and engineering practices integrated in the performance expectations.

The concepts and practices in the performance expectations are based on the grade-band endpoints described in the NRC Framework. Students can use their understanding of cell theory to develop physical and conceptual models of cells. They can construct explanations for the interactions of systems in cells and organisms and for how organisms gather and use information from the environment. By the end of their studies, students understand that all organisms are made of cells, that special structures are responsible for particular functions in organisms, and that for many organisms the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems that form a hierarchy from cells to the body.

Crosscutting concepts of cause and effect, structure and function, and matter and energy are called out as organizing concepts for these core ideas. They also demonstrate understanding of the genetic implications for sexual and asexual reproduction. Students can develop evidence to support their understanding of the structures and behaviors that increase the likelihood of successful reproduction by organisms.

They have a beginning understanding of the ways in which humans can select for specific traits, the role of technology, genetic modification, and the nature of ethical responsibilities related to selective breeding. At the end of middle school, students can explain how select structures, functions, and behaviors of organisms change in predictable ways as they progress from birth to old age.

Students can use the practices of analyzing and interpreting data, using models, conducting investigations, and communicating information. Crosscutting concepts of structure and function, change and stability, and matter and energy flow in organisms support understanding across this topic. How do matter and energy move through an ecosystem? They can construct explanations for the cycling of matter in organisms and the interactions of organisms to obtain matter and energy from an ecosystem to survive and grow.

Students have a grade-appropriate understanding and use of the practices of investigations, constructing arguments based on evidence, and oral and written communication. They understand that sustaining life requires substantial energy and matter inputs and that the structure and functions of organisms contribute to the capture, transformation, transport, release, and elimination of matter and energy.

Adding to these crosscutting concepts is a deeper understanding of systems and system models that ties the performances expectations in this topic together. To answer the question, middle school students construct explanations for the interactions in ecosystems and the scientific, economic, political, and social justifications used in making decisions about maintaining biodiversity in ecosystems.

Students can use models, construct evidence-based explanations, and use argumentation from evidence. Students understand that organisms and populations of organisms are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other organisms and with non-living factors. They also understand that the limits of resources influence the growth of organisms and populations, which may result in competition for those limited resources.

Crosscutting concepts of matter and energy, systems and system models, and cause and effect are used by students to support understanding the phenomena they study. How does the environment influence genetic traits in populations over multiple generations? They have a beginning understanding of the role of variation in natural selection and how this leads to speciation. They have a grade-appropriate understanding and use of the practices of analyzing graphical displays; using mathematical models; and gathering, reading, and communicating information.

The crosscutting concept of cause and effect is central to this topic. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function. Assessment of the function of the other organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell.

Assessment does not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts. Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting sub-systems composed of groups of cells. Examples could include the interaction of sub-systems within a system and the normal functioning of those systems. Assessment is limited to the circulatory, excretory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, and nervous systems.

Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.

Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and non-living parts of an ecosystem. Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial. Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.

Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants, respectively. Examples of animal behaviors that affect the probability of plant reproduction could include transferring pollen or seeds and creating conditions for seed germination and growth.

Examples of plant structures could include bright flowers attracting butterflies that transfer pollen, flower nectar and odors that attract insects that transfer pollen, and hard shells on nuts that squirrels bury. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms. Examples of genetic factors could include large breed cattle and species of grass affecting the growth of organisms. Examples of evidence could include drought decreasing plant growth, fertilizer increasing plant growth, different varieties of plant seeds growing at different rates in different conditions, and fish growing larger in large ponds than in small ponds.

Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes mutations located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of an organism.

Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. Gather and synthesize information about technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past. Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships. Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.

Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time. Students in middle school develop understanding of a wide range of topics in the earth and space sciences that build on science concepts from elementary school through more advanced content, practice, and crosscutting themes. The content of the performance expectations is based on current community-based geoscience literacy efforts such as the Earth Science Literacy Principles 1 and is presented with a greater emphasis on an earth systems science approach.

The performance expectations strongly reflect the many societally relevant aspects of the earth and space sciences resources, hazards, environmental impacts and related connections to engineering and technology. While the performance expectations shown in middle school earth and space sciences couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations.

The performance expectations in MS. A and ESS1. There is a strong emphasis on a systems approach, using models of the solar system to explain astronomical and other observations of the cyclical patterns of eclipses and seasons.

There is also a strong connection to engineering through the instruments and technologies that have allowed us to explore the objects in our solar system and obtain data that support theories that explain the formation and evolution of the universe. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; scale, proportion, and quantity; systems and system models; and interdependence of science, engineering, and technology are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In the MS. Space Systems performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models and analyzing and interpreting data and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. C, ESS2. A, ESS2. B, and ESS2. Important concepts in this topic are scale, proportion, and quantity and stability and change, in relation to the different ways geologic processes operate over the long expanse of geologic time.

History of Earth performance. Budd, K. Campbell, M. Conklin, E. Kappel, J. Karsten, N. LaDue, G. Lewis, L. Patino, R. Raynolds, R. Ridky, R. Ross, J. Taber, B. Tewksbury, and P. Journal of Geoscience Education 60 2 — C, and ESS3. Students can investigate the controlling properties of important materials and construct explanations based on the analysis of real geoscience data.

Of special importance in both topics are the ways that geoscience processes provide resources needed by society but also cause natural hazards that present risks to society; both involve technological challenges for the identification and development of resources and for the mitigation of hazards.

The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect, energy and matter, and stability and change are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. D, and ESS3. Students can construct and use models to develop an understanding of the factors that control weather and climate.

A systems approach is also important here, examining the feedbacks between systems as energy from the sun is transferred between systems and circulates through the oceans and atmosphere. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect, systems and system models, and stability and change are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Weather and Climate performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in asking questions, developing and using models, and planning and carrying out investigations and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

B and ESS3. Students can use many different practices to understand the significant and complex issues surrounding human uses of land, energy, mineral, and water resources and the resulting impacts of their development. The crosscutting concepts of patterns; cause and effect; and interdependence of science, engineering, and technology are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons. Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system. Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. Examples of data include statistical information, drawings and photographs, and models. Examples can include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution or extinction of particular living organisms, or significant volcanic eruptions.

Examples of geoscience processes include surface weathering and deposition by the movements of water, ice, and wind. Emphasis is on geoscience processes that shape local geographic features where appropriate. Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of past plate motions. Examples of models can be conceptual or physical.

Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions. Emphasis is on how weather can be predicted within probabilistic ranges. Examples of data can be provided to students such as weather maps, diagrams, and visualizations or obtained through laboratory experiments such as with condensation.

Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates. Emphasis of atmospheric circulation is on the sunlight-driven latitudinal banding, the Coriolis effect, and resulting prevailing winds; emphasis of ocean circulation is on the transfer of heat by the global ocean convection cycle, which is constrained by the Coriolis effect and the outlines of continents.

Examples of models can be diagrams, maps and globes, or digital representations. Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century. Examples of evidence can include tables, graphs, and maps of global and regional temperatures, atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the rates of human activities. Emphasis is on the major role that human activities play in causing the rise in global temperatures.

Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects. Examples of natural hazards can be taken from interior processes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions , surface processes such as mass wasting and tsunamis , or severe weather events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods.

Examples of data can include the locations, magnitudes, and frequencies of the natural hazards. Examples of technologies can be global such as satellite systems to monitor hurricanes or forest fires or local such as building basements in tornado-prone regions or reservoirs to mitigate droughts.

Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment. Examples of human impacts can include water usage such as the withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or the construction of dams and levees , land usage such as urban development, agriculture, or the removal of wetlands , and pollution such as of the air, water, or land. The consequences of increases in human populations and consumption of natural resources are described by science, but science does not make the decisions for the actions society takes.

By the time students reach middle school they should have had numerous experiences in engineering design. The goal for middle school students is to define problems more precisely, to conduct a more thorough process of choosing the best solution, and to optimize the final design. How will the end user decide whether or not the design is successful? Also at this level students are expected to consider not only the end user, but also the broader society and the environment.

Every technological change is likely to have both intended and unintended effects. It is up to the designer to try to anticipate the effects it may have and to behave responsibly in developing a new or improved technology. These considerations may take the form of either criteria or constraints on possible solutions. Developing possible solutions does not explicitly address generating design ideas because students were expected to develop the capability in elementary school.

The focus in middle school is on a two-stage process of evaluating the different ideas that have been proposed by using a systematic method, such as a tradeoff matrix, to determine which solutions are most promising, and by testing different solutions and then combining the best ideas into a new solution that may be better than any of the preliminary ideas.

Improving designs at the middle school level involves an iterative process in which students test the best design, analyze the results, modify the design accordingly, and then re-test and modify the design again. Students may go through this cycle two, three, or more times in order to reach the optimal best possible result. For example, in the life sciences students apply their engineering design capabilities to evaluate plans for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services MS-LS In the earth and space sciences students apply their engineering design capabilities to problems related to the impacts of humans on Earth systems MS-ESS These include defining a problem by precisely specifying criteria and constraints for solutions as well as potential impacts on society and the natural environment, systematically evaluating alternative solutions, analyzing data from tests of different solutions and combining the best ideas into an improved solution, and developing a model and iteratively testing and improving it to reach an optimal solution.

While the performance expectations shown in MS. Engineering Design couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. Students in high school continue to develop their understanding of the four core ideas in the physical sciences. These ideas include the most fundamental concepts from chemistry and physics but are intended to leave room for expanded study in upper-level high school courses.

The high school performance expectations in the physical sciences build on middle school ideas and skills and allow high school students to explain more in-depth phenomena central not only to the physical sciences but to the life sciences and earth and space sciences as well. These performance expectations blend the core ideas with science and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts to support students in developing useable knowledge to explain ideas across the science disciplines.

In the physical sciences performance expectations at the high school level, there is a focus on several scientific practices. Students are expected to develop understanding of the sub-structure of atoms and provide more mechanistic explanations of the properties of substances. Students are able to use the periodic table as a tool to explain and predict the properties of elements.

Phenomena involving nuclei are also important to understand, as they explain the formation and abundance of the elements, radioactivity, the release of energy from the sun and other stars, and the generation of nuclear power. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, energy and matter, and structure and function are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In these performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, planning and conducting investigations, and communicating scientific and technical information and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

How does one characterize and explain these reactions and make predictions about them? Using this expanded knowledge of chemical reactions, students are able to explain important biological and geophysical phenomena. Students are also able to apply an understanding of the process of optimization in engineering design to chemical reaction systems. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, energy and matter, and stability and change are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In these performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, using mathematical thinking, constructing explanations, and designing solutions and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. Students also develop an understanding that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

Students are able to apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, cause and effect, and systems and system models are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In the PS2 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in planning and conducting investigations, analyzing data and using math to support claims, and applying scientific ideas to solve design problems and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. Energy is understood as a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system, and the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system.

Students develop an understanding that energy at both the macroscopic and the atomic scales can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy associated with the configuration relative positions of particles. In some cases, the energy associated with the configuration of particles can be thought of as stored in fields.

Students also demonstrate their understanding of engineering principles when they design, build, and refine devices associated with the conversion of energy. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect; systems and system models; energy and matter; and the influence of science, engineering, and technology on society and the natural world are further developed in the performance expectations associated with PS3.

In these performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, planning and carrying out investigations, using computational thinking, and designing solutions and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. The performance expectations associated with the topic Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation are critical to understanding how many new technologies work.

Students are able to apply understanding of how wave properties and the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter can transfer information across long distances, store information, and investigate nature on many scales. Models of electromagnetic. Students understand that combining waves of different frequencies can make a wide variety of patterns and thereby encode and transmit information.

Students also demonstrate their understanding of engineering ideas by presenting information about how technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect; systems and system models; stability and change; interdependence of science, engineering, and technology; and influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are highlighted as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In the PS3 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in asking questions, using mathematical thinking, engaging in argument from evidence, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

Assessment does not include quantitative understanding of ionization energy beyond relative trends. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials such as graphite. Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Assessment is limited to alpha, beta, and gamma radioactive decays.

Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.

Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends on the changes in total bond energy. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.

Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation, including adding reactants or removing products. Assessment does not include calculating equilibrium constants and concentrations. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. Apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electrical current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electrical current.

Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component s and energy flows in and out of the system are known. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles objects and energy associated with the relative positions of particles objects. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.

Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Examples of devices could include Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens, and generators. Examples of constraints could include use of renewable energy forms and efficiency.

Assessment is limited to devices constructed with materials provided to students. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system second law of thermodynamics.

Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electrical or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction. Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.

Evaluate questions about the advantages of using digital transmission and storage of information. Disadvantages could include issues of easy deletion, security, and theft. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

Examples of a phenomenon could include resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect. Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, Web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias. Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.

Assessments do not include band theory. Students in high school develop understanding of key concepts that help them make sense of the life sciences. The performance expectations for high school life sciences blend core ideas with science and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts to support students in developing useable knowledge that can be applied across the science disciplines.

While the performance expectations in high school life sciences couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices underlying the performance expectations. The performance expectations are based on the grade-band endpoints described in the NRC Framework. Students demonstrate understanding of how systems of cells function together to support life processes.

Students demonstrate their understanding through critical reading, using models, and conducting investigations. The crosscutting concepts of structure and function, matter and energy, and systems and system models in organisms are called out as organizing concepts. Students can determine why individuals of the same species vary in how they look, function, and behave. Students can develop conceptual models for the role of DNA in the unity of life on Earth and use statistical models to explain the importance of variation within populations for the survival and evolution of species.

Ethical issues related to genetic modification of organisms and the nature of science can be described. Students can explain the mechanisms of genetic inheritance and describe the environmental and genetic causes of gene mutation and the alteration of gene expression. Crosscutting concepts of structure and function, patterns, and cause and effect developed in this topic help students generalize understanding of inheritance of traits to other applications in science.

How do matter and energy move through ecosystems? They can apply mathematical concepts to develop evidence to support explanations of the interactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration and develop models to communicate these explanations. They can relate the nature of science to how explanations may change in light of new evidence and the implications for our.

In addition, students can utilize the crosscutting concepts of matter and energy and systems and system models to make sense of ecosystem dynamics. Students have increased understanding of interactions among organisms and how those interactions influence the dynamics of ecosystems.

Students can generate mathematical comparisons, conduct investigations, use models, and apply scientific reasoning to link evidence to explanations about interactions and changes within ecosystems. How does biodiversity affect humans? Students demonstrate understanding of the factors causing natural selection and the process of evolution of species over time. They demonstrate understanding of how multiple lines of evidence contribute to the strength of scientific theories of natural selection and evolution.

Students can demonstrate an understanding of the processes that change the distribution of traits in a population over time and describe extensive scientific evidence ranging from the fossil record to genetic relationships among species that support the theory of biological evolution. Students can use models, apply statistics, analyze data, and produce scientific communications about evolution.

Understanding of the crosscutting concepts of patterns, scale, structure and function, and cause and effect supports the development of a deeper understanding of this topic. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.

Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. An example of an interacting system could be an artery depending on the proper function of elastic tissue and smooth muscle to regulate and deliver the proper amount of blood within the circulatory system.

Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.

Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. Examples of mathematical comparisons could include graphs, charts, histograms, and population changes gathered from simulations or historical data sets.

Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. Evaluate claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming. Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.

Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division mitosis and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: 1 the potential for a species to increase in number, 2 the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, 3 competition for limited resources, and 4 the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.

Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.

Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in 1 increases in the number of individuals of some species, 2 the emergence of new species over time, and 3 the extinction of other species.

Students in high school develop understanding of a wide range of topics in the earth and space science that build on science concepts from middle school through more advanced content, practice, and crosscutting themes. The content of the performance expectations is based on current community-based geoscience literacy efforts such as the Earth Science Literacy Principles, 2 and is presented with a greater emphasis on an earth systems science approach.

There are strong connections to mathematical practices of analyzing and interpreting data. The performance expectations strongly reflect the many societally relevant aspects of the earth and space sciences resources, hazards, environmental impacts with an emphasis on using engineering and technology concepts to design solutions to challenges facing human society. Requires an empty beacon and time one jump. Captain's Edition also modifies some of the vanilla augments.

Some of the Vanilla augments have had their abilities either buffed of nerfed and some augments have been given unique abilities. Adaptive Gel Suits Formerly Emergency Respirators also protect crew from radiation as well as suffocation damage. The augments that have been changed are listed below with their CE name. Also, see Race Specific Augments for more information about the unique options that are enabled by the faction specific augments in Captain's Edition.

All your drones can remain active even when drone communication is scrambled. Indicates you command a rogue Mantis ship; any psychopathic crew signing up with you will not loathe piracy or taking slaves. Indicates you command a brutish Rock ship; enabling piracy.

Indicates you command a rogue Slug ship; enabling piracy and breaking truce. Indicates you command an official Zoltan ship; enabling diplomatic solutions. This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Categories :. Cancel Save. Universal Conquest Wiki. FandomShop Newsletter GalaxyQuest.

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Spacecraft mod 1-3 2-4 betting system Students determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances. A: Forces and Motion Vestuarios real madrid levante betting and pulls can have different strengths and directions. Students are also able to apply an understanding of design to the process of energy transfer. Structure and Function. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. B, ESS3. Students are able to apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.
Misa pack 1-3 2-4 betting system Forces and Interactions. Students are able to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen through the development of a model. A, ESS1. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and non-living parts of an ecosystem. In fifth grade students design solutions to environmental problems 5-ESS Students are able to use a model of waves to describe patterns of waves in terms of amplitude and wavelength, and that waves can cause objects to move.
Club friendly betting tips This is the same practice as in science inquiry, except the goal is to achieve the best possible design rather than to answer a question about the natural world. Second Grade. The performance expectations associated with the topic Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation are critical to understanding how many new technologies work. They understand that sustaining life requires substantial energy and matter inputs and that the structure and functions of organisms contribute to the capture, transformation, transport, release, and elimination of matter and energy. How do matter and energy move through ecosystems?

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Though the process could only take a few hours, it is thought to shed light on the conditions in our universe more than four billion years ago. Thales Alenia Space, a company with three sites in the UK and nearly employees won the contract to design the mothership for the Comet Interceptor mission, with the two smaller probes made in Japan.

Scientists are likely to target a comet from the Oort Cloud , a band of icy debris which lies between the sun and our next nearest star. This cloud contains matter formed during the birth of our solar system, which will have been left intact as it has not been vaporised by rays from the sun. This means that the probes will be able to study the composition of the comet to evaluate whether similar specimens may have brought water to Earth in the past.

Life on our planet could not exist without water, and it is thought by many that comets may have been responsible for bringing that water to our planet. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future.

We still tune in to our TV sets or probably smart phones to send off astronauts in their journey to space. Make your space adventures come closer to reality with Spaceflight Simulator. Created by Stefo Mai Morojna, this rocket-making and space exploration simulation game has made waves in the Android world. Review your knowledge of physics and be a scientist in your own little world.

Spaceflight Simulator is a mobile application that mainly lets you build rockets to be launched into space. Bring out the science geek in you as you build a rocket from scratch. Entering the game, you will be presented with segmented parts and tools on the left side of the screen. At the center is a black workspace where all of the pieces you choose will be put together. Feel like a legit designer or engineer with its AutoCAD looking canvas.

Make sure to load up on fuel for the long flight ahead. You can also dock in one of the space stations. Spaceflight Simulator showcases a sleek and science-driven 3D graphics. It has user-friendly controls despite its rather technical gameplay.

Feel like a real NASA scientist as you build your own expedition to space. Feel the thrill of assembling a rocket then landing on different celestial bodies. This unique simulation app presents planets in a realistic scale which is a good review of science concepts.

It is an excellent sneak peek to the work of space explorers which kids and adults can both enjoy. Experience a more educational gaming experience on your mobile devices with Spaceflight Simulator. Over 10 million users have already downloaded it on Google Play. It is compatible with all Android devices so everyone in the family can enjoy. No need to worry about in-app purchases with the unlimited money of the Mod app. Download From Google Play.

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Constructlon. Scenano. 3 Conccptua 1. Deslqn. FIgure 1 Space Station Automation Study. I 3. SYSTEM. J. AUTOMATION. 1 3 4 I. I TECHNOLOGY J. the probability that a system, subsystem, component, or part will satisfactorily Combinations. LOCKHEED MISSILES 8c SPACE COMPANY Universal Application of Standard Subsystem Modules. It has been de- terface provisions of the compartments, or (2) additional spacecraft mod-. integer and m is a positive integer, then by a (mod m) we mean the remainder The martingale betting system described in Exercise 10 has a long and it is studied, the sample space Ω corresponds to the set of possible outcomes of the He showed that the value of the first game is. 1 · 3 · 5 · · (2n − 1). 2 · 4 · 6 · · (​2n).