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This perspective has become less adequate as East-West tensions subside and the socialist world diminishes in global imp ortance. Whether because of the rising importance of middle powers, or because of the apparent evolution of post-Cold War regionalism, there is a growing need to incorporate the economic successes of NICs into the study of power politics.

Perhaps more importantly, a "middle power" perspective is wanting in the literature--a literature that would understand the processes enabling and conditioning their rise in international status and the impact that rise has had on international security in general. A major analytical difficulty dividing the two key dimensions of middle power emergence economic ascendance and power politics has been the separation between "high" and "low" politics in the traditional international relations literature.

Such a distinction, however, has become increasingly blurred because of the broadening of a national security conception. As this study will demonstrate, many of the technological and commercial issues deriving from NICs' presence in the market are viewed by great powers as national security threats. NICs' acquisition of missile technology, for instance, has both commercial significance satellite launching capability as well as military application ballistic missiles.

Recent research about declining U. One U. The Third World state has long been concerned with vulnerability to great power politics particularly in the area of economic rewards and sanctions and to catastrophic shifts in the world economy such as the Great Depression of the s or the oil shocks of Krasner points out, "cannot control transnational flows or easily adjust to changes emanating from the international environment.

The growing importance of regional trade blocs e. Capital flight has continued to be a major drainage source of fresh investments, while U. Technology export controls in developed countries have slowed the flow of high technology to many Third World recipients. Nevertheless, Krasner calls our attention to an important point in theorizing about the Third World: The foreign policies of those states are grounded in a national security prerogative dominated by vulnerability aversion and control over international processes.

What is new for both great and small powers is the connection of national security to an increasingly interdependent world market. National security becomes a complex function of the local economy's position in the world market. Industrializat ion enhances a nation's power attributes--a major source of security in an anarchic state system. These two sides, the dissertation argues, have become part of the same security game in the post-World War 1[ political order.

The central thesis of this study is that Third World countries such as Brazil have found the interrelation between security and interdependence paradoxical because the former has been conceptualized as a search for autonomy. The relevance of middle powers' national security strategy after the war is found in the theoretical relationship that can be established between rapid economic development and conceptions of power within an increasingly interdependent world economy.

To the extent that upward mobility and stability have been addressed in the literature, such as A. Organski's powerr transition" or Robert Gilpin's hegemonic stability perspective, their application is limited to the nations already possessing a particular level of industrial might, which enables them to challenge existing hierarchy. Although Organski rejects the b alance-of- power perspective, his conception of power transition is rooted in the politics of great powers, which is really only a slight reformulation of the balance-of-power argument.

In fact, there is little theoretical depth in either Organski's or Gilpin's discussion about the way development confers power and security, other than the simplistic observation that industrialization endows the nation with the means to wage both economic and military war.

Unfortunately, this theoretical focus says little about the national security interests of these so-called semi-peripheral nations, other than to assert linkages between the interests of the core and the behavior of the periphery. Between these two theoretical conceptions lies an uncharted analytical space that NICs have occupied empirically with competitive production and sale of armaments and used to redefine their traditional military links with great powers.

This dissertation seeks to explore this new ground through a closer look at the development-power linkages, which are often either taken for granted or are left unresolved in both traditional and radical international relations literature. This study uses the international arms market as an entry point into this effort for two reasons. First, military capability has traditionally been the power yardstick in the international relations discussions of "high" politics. Arms production in many middle powers has had the dual purpose of promoting technological transformation and enhancing national security, the assumption being that a nation with high technological capability is economically and geopolitically secure.

Powerful nations, after all, are associated with advanced technologies and skills that enhance their market competitiveness and their ability to manufacture weapons, a critical component of geopolitical security. Therefore, "low" politics also filters into the discussion of the interrelation between local development and power politics at the global level.

Indigenous arms production is essentially an impor t- subs ti tuition industrialization OSI strategy, insofar as it seeks to reduce the political dependence associated with arms imports. Efficient economic performance enhances the competitiveness of the local product and the prospects of higher revenues, which may be invested in the development of more sophisticated products. Regardless, in national security terms, such economic efficiency leads to an improvement in indigenous military capability--a major factor insulating the country from simple trade-based reliance on foreign suppliers.

Nevertheless, the fast pace of technological change in the international arms business requires that local producers quickly innovate in order to remain competitive. Unable to innovate fast enough through local means, producers in developing countries must seek foreign sources of technology.

For many NICs, technology transfers have become the main source of "indigenous innovation. The question is whether this helps national security or merely replaces one kind of dependence with another. More importantly, though, the paradox of national insecurity points to the importance in conceptualizing power both as a national attribute and a.

Power is a product of the enhanced economic position of a country, but the price of that enhancement is measured in growing vulnerability to systemic forces shaping its direction. What is important about this particular case, however, is in identifying the way power is exercised at both levels: the way nations shape their environments the development of indigenous arms production and redefinition of military alliances , and the particular historical circumstances constraining and enabling their national security strategy expansion of the world economy through foreign direct investment and financial links.

The underlying dynamics of this paradox are found in the way these nations arrive at any particular national security strategy. The state may seek to develop an indigenous arms production capability so as to escape the vagaries of power politics.

This is consistent with traditional conceptions of security in world politics. The Hobbesian dictum regarding human fear of violent death applies to nations in an anarchic state system. To Hobbes, security is the overriding human motive, so the attainment of power is the surest way of deterring the depredations of others As a national security strategy, therefore, international links are to be minimized whenever they 10 promote high levels of external dependence. The local arms producer, however, operates on the basis of profit-motive.

Thrust into the vagaries of the international market, the producer must remain competitive. If such a compelling dictum necessitates the establishment of external links with foreign technology suppliers, so be it. We can thus easily see the inherent potential of conflict between the state and local producers in the formulation of a national security strategy.

The remainder of this first chapter addresses the growing interest in the international relations literature in the national security content of economic issues such as competitiveness. This interest provides the basis from which two theoretical conceptions of development-power linkages are presented: agent-centered and structural. The last section of this chapter suggests a theoretical framework that combines elements of these two conceptions to be used in the case study of U.

The central thesis of this study will be that Brazil's arms production program has suffered from the paradox of national insecurity. While Brazil has been successful in reducing its dependence on U. Such a dependence has limited Brazil's leverage in security negotiations with the United States in recent years.

Economic Development and Power Relations Power as an "essentially contested concept" covers many facets in social science research. Dahl's model was on the control of behavior: "A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do.

Bachrach and M. Baratz' words, the "second face" of power. The "non-decision-making" aspect of power was manifested through the mobilization of bias by those in dominant positions. Structure occupied the central theme in the mobilization of the bias debate because differing levels of resources were available to actors in the social system.

Those actors with the most resources manipulate the system toward desired outcomes. Structure calls attention to the locus of power, as concerning freedom: "who can control whom? Albert 0. Hirschman in his classic study of the interrelation of power and trade, National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade, argues that it is the concentration of external ties rather than the magnitude of those ties per se that counts in assessing power relations in the international trade system.

For instance, Steven Lukes's Power: A Radical View extended that debate to include three dimensions to power analysis. Apart from behavioral and non-decision-making aspects, Lukes added the conception of hegemony as an overarching dimension of power relations. Anthony Giddens has taken up the dialectics of agency and structure found in Lukes' work and transformed it into a dualism under which the two components become part of a single conception of power.

This fundamental link between action and power dissociates the latter from any inherent connection with conflict and clashing interests, a common proposition in international relations studies of power relations. Dennis H. Wrong agrees with Giddens that power is action that deploys means in order to achieve outcomes. Power should not be regarded as a resource; but instead as the mobilization by an actor of resources to produce effects.

As such, development carries as its central component distributive changes e. The linkage between development and power can be established at these two power levels agent and structural. At the agent micro level, power becomes the deployment of resources industrialization so as to 14 achieve security in an anarchic international system.

As nations develop, they achieve higher levels of economic capability through which political goals may be secured. Development strategies call to our attention a conception of agency that resembles Max Weber's own view of power, which stresses the element of intention, or "will. NICs' own developmental policies have been placed in a setting that evoked resistance from already industrialized nations. Much of the literature about NICs' trade conflicts centers on this aspect. In an asymmetrical environment, however, it is misleading to assume, as some realists do, that all politics including development politics is a struggle for power.

The pursuit of economic and political autonomy became a driving national security perspective for many aspiring powers as they broke away from the Cold War order. Hirschman's argument that great powers often take advantage of the trading system to forge ties of domination with weaker nations is well taken.

However, Hirschman's National Power--a pioneer work on the relationship between trade politics and dependence--missed the liberating dynamics that trade dependence unleashes at the domestic level, a point the author later recognized. Hirschman's notion of dependence does not include the lesser powers' pursuit of "liberation," which is inherent in any industrialization policy. The struggle to escape from power is undertaken at the structural level, as nations attempt to redefine their subordinate position in the power hierarchy.

While development may lead to increased power in the international system by virtue of enhanced economic capability, power cannot be analytically understood unless placed within a specific historical context in relation to other actors in the system. Such a context is found at the macro level, structural power, which works as a "hidden hand" molding the very preferences actors assume. While development widens the actor's alternatives and ability to transform the environment, developmental policies are never formulated in a vacuum.

The context of developmental choices lies in the placement of actors in the international system, with each exhibiting different resource capabilities. Before we propose a framework for incorporating both agent and structural elements in the study of development-power linkages, it would be helpful to gain some notion as to the way each has been used in the international relations literature.

While some analysts have focused their attention on power as an agent attribute level 1 , others have uncovered the power dynamics operating at the structural plain level 2. The development of a naval industry, for instance, allows a country to expand its maritime links without depending on others for transportation services.

The linkage is established in the following sequence: Development leads to an actor's increased power in the international system, thus promoting national security. Development, therefore, confers power by deploying the means naval industry through which a nation enhances national security self-reliance in maritime transportation.

This sequence is a classic representation of such international relations studies that focus on the domestic components of mobility in the international system. As the motor of internal economic and military change, the state plays a central role in the transformation of the local economy. The agent-centered argument sees the actions of individual nation-states agents as defining international structure. Unlike structuralists, who see the international system as defining and constraining the character and possibilities of the agents either dominant or subordinate actors , the agent-centered proponents assign greater freedom to actors in their effort to change the structure of the international system.

In this view, power is derived primarily from domestic attributes. Natural resources, population size, and arms production are often cited as the components of a state's position in the international system. This view of the development-power linkage poses state agency as the defining element in international structure. Changes in an individual country's capability e.

In the s, Organski provided a standard agent-centered interpretation, which found its way to contemporary studies of war and peace. Organski identifies two major determinants of power: national geography, resources, and population and social economic and political development, and national morale. Political development is particularly crucial, because, as he suggests, it is largely through governmental direction that the human and material resources of a nation are mobilized to influence the behavior of other nations.

Political development increases internal unity, stimulates economic development with all its important consequences for power, and or anizes men and material into effective fighting forces. W In evaluating the determinants of power, Organski ranks the three most important elements of power: population, political development, and 18 economic development. The indicator of power capability is closely related to industrialization.

As Organski argues, "The most powerful nations in the world today are all politically modem and industrial. The established leaders are those who industrialized first, and those who challenge them for leadership are nations that have industrialized more recently. This is not an accident. As Organski argues,41 It is these sudden sprints that keep upsetting the distribution of power in the world, threatening the established order of the moment and disturbing world peace. It is the differential spread of industrialization throughout the world and the resulting power transition, not some automatic balancing process, that provides the framework of modern international politics.

Any nation undergoing power transition may upset the existing order by becoming a challenger. As Organski suggests, "World peace has coincided with periods of unchallenged supremacy of power, whereas the periods of 19 approximate balance have been the periods of war. Satisfaction, therefore, is related to the response a challenger receives from the top of the hierarchy Industrialization is the source of much of the international trouble of the present period, for it expands the inspirations of men and helps to make them dissatisfied with their lot, while at the same time it increases their power to do something about their dissatisfaction, that is, to wrest a greater share of the good things of life from those who currently control them.

Another recent agent-centered interpretation of the linkages between industrialization and international power is found in Guatam Sen's The Military Origins of Industrialization and International Trade Rivalry, which tries to explain the roots of international trade disputes in manufactures. The author finds a more persuasive interpretive schema in the division of the international political system into competitive nation-states.

His notion of national security, which is closely related to the conception pursued in this dissertation, is derived from this competitive A r. As he suggests,,tJ The insecurity of existence in an international political system, characterized by the competitive relations of nation-state actors, prompts latecomer countries to pursue the goal of industrial transformation once the distribution of power has been dramatically altered by the concurrence of industrialisation in firstcomer countries; military capability, on which the distribution of power and the status of countries is predicated, being heavily dependent on the level of industrialisation.

Sen suggests that competitive relations between countries in the international political system lead each government to play "a crucial role in fostering and maintaining. Along with the arrival of each "generation," Sen suggests, came greater tensions over international manufacturing. Sen reflected much of earlier views on waves of development, as expressed in the development economic literature. The economic historian Alexander Gerschenkron, for instance, provided a classic study about latecomers in which he argued about the "advantages of backwardness.

Self-reliance is crucial in Sen's analysis, because he not only relates the role of the state in the national economy, but also the relationship between national defense and strategic industries--a proposition Stanley E. Hilton makes in presenting the role of the Brazilian military in trade policy in the s.

Sen establishes a linkage between national defense and economic policy-making Whatever the constitutive structure of the international political system, barring universal empire which would transcend the system of territorial states, the dominant reality is rivalry and competition between national actors, and the currency of transaction between them is power; and the highest denomination of this currency of power is military capability.

The agent-centered argument makes a contribution in viewing the state as an important actor shaping the process of international change. The dynamics of trade rivalry among nation-states in the post-World War II period has led scholars to explore a new area of research called strategic trade policy. Robert Gilpin defines it as "an attempt by a state to change the international strategic environment in ways that give advantage to the home country's oligopolis tic firms.

Aspiring powers have taken advantage particularly of the first form "industrial preemption" as a way of developing domestic industries. Subsequently, however, many of these industries have become competitive in world markets and have increased a country's export potential. Middle powers have been careful to promote a strategic trade policy that addresses its national security concerns.

Several heavy industrial sectors have been targeted as "critical" e. The arms industry, however, has become a source of intense import substitution, while some middle powers such as Brazil and South Korea have turned it into a profitable export sector. The Structural Power Argument The structuralist argument finds in the distribution of capability the essence of an actor's national security perspective.

The existing structure shapes and constrains the developmental possibilities of each actor. In this study, the literature on structuralism will be divided into three camps: 23 realism, revisionism, and postrevisionism. While some might argue that each camp does not reflect a progression from the other, they do present different analytical directions that are important in international relations theory-building.

The first camp draws on the classical realist tradition of the s and s when scholars such as Hans Morgenthau conceptualized the emerging bipolar international order. Realism, however, did not gain a structuralist bent until the s, when interdependence and neorealist schools formally integrated realist premises into a structuralist model.

Kenneth Waltz has become the most outspoken defender of structural realism. Therefore, U. Waltz's focus on realism differs from that in Sen's military rivalry conception because Waltz does not account for the changes the international system undergoes once nations acquire new power capability--a contribution Sen's work makes.

After all, a consideration of development as a domestic phenomenon would violate the structuralist integrity of Waltz's theory. As a result, structural realism has been criticized as static and giving little attention to the dynamic nature of international relations.

Such a focus neglects the importance of asymmetry in international relations, a concern that the revisionist literature examines in the context of North-South economic relations. The revisionist camp, which became popular in the s, addressed structural patterns of dependence between center and periphery. Although this literature has come to be known as dependency theory, "revisionism" seems to be a more appropriate term in this dissertation because it places the literature in the context of an evolving progression in international political economy studies.

Revisionists did not necessarily break away from structural realism, but they did challenge the conventional thinking of their time by bringing the North-South dimension to the forefront of international relations. Like the conventional theorists, revisionists also suffered from the same predilection for a static view of international relations.

By dividing the world into center-periphery, there was little room for overlap. Just like the conventional view of structure as defining the character of individual action, revisionists also saw the center-periphery as establishing rigorous norms of dominance and subservience. Conceptualizing development, therefore, was a difficult exercise if it meant a transformation in power relations.

The revisionist camp--as a structuralist argument--sees domestic development as part of a glo bal phenomenon. The individual power of a nation-state can only be ascertained in relation to how its local economy is integrated into the international system either as a dominant or as a subordinated economy.

Consequently, the power of newly developed nation-states may continue to be limited by a constraining structure, if their subordinate role persists. As a result, development in weaker nations may become a tool of imperialism by dominant nations. By viewing capitalism as an evolving system with global reach, Cardoso and Faletto suggest that domestic class relations are closely related to the economic processes taking place at the international level.

The transformation of the international economic system leads to changes at the domestic level, with new class interests emerging. Such a transformation took place in Brazil at the turn of the 20th century, as a merchant and urban bourgeoisie replaced a landed aristocracy at the onset of Brazil's Industrial Revolution. Even if a country experiences development, revisionists argue, a nation is not necessarily moving upward in the international power hierarchy.

Immanuel Wallerstein's "world-system theory" does not discount the possibility of a peripheral country moving up in the structural hierarchy and becoming a core nation. Revisionists argue that conditions of dependency often persist, as local dominant classes serve the interests of international forces. As a result, the nation finds itself trapped in the world capitalist order in a subservient role. Nationalism and populism do constitute social and political forces of development, according to Cardoso and Faletto, but they participate in the phase of domestic market consolidation, under which the "developmentalist state" prepares the ground for the internationalization of the domestic market.

As Cardoso and Faletto suggest, "The peripheral economies were linked to the international market at the time when the center of capitalism no longer 27 acted solely through control of the import-export system, but acted also through direct industrial investment in the new national markets. In this new form of development, which Cardoso and Faletto call "dependent development," the public sector also plays a dominant role in local economic transformation.

Peter Evans has made an important contribution in the conceptualization of "dependent development" by viewing the structural relations in post Brazil as a triple alliance: public sector, the multinational corporation, and the modern capitalist sector of the national economy. The state enterprise is incorporated into the network of international capital, while the participation of multinationals is carefully negotiated. While "dependent development" constituted a viable analytical direction, revisionists found themselves more and more concerned with explaining exceptional cases even as late as the midds, such as the East Asian NICs' successful entry in the trade system.

Hyun-Chin Lim, for instance, in looking at dependent 28 development in South Korea, makes the common assumption in the revisionist perspective: a country's structural position in the world capitalist system is a main determinant of development and underdevelopment. Studies about bargaining power between multinational corporations and "host" states moved the literature in the s from revisionism to a "postrevisionist" camp. The focus of these studies centered on the relative bargaining strength of the two parties the transnational corporations, or TNCs, and the state with specific attention to the latter's capacity to break away from structural constraints and to become an "autonomous actor" in the developmental process e.

Douglas C. Bennett and Kenneth E. Sharpe, for instance, observe that "the experience of Mexico shows that interests of the auto TNCs often led them to pursue courses of action that were detrimental to Mexican welfare, but it also shows that the state was able to alter their behavior to make them contribute more to industrialization and economic growth. The use of such a model produces an effective argument for the interrelation between structural constraints and state "autonomous" action: "States cannot make industrial policy as they choose, but neither must they accept local industrial structures as exogenously determined.

Evans, for instance, while granting some state "autonomy" during the developmental process, has called attention to the way dependency has been "transformed" rather than "overcome. The concept of postimperialism grew out of two bodies of thought: political theories of the modern business corporation and class analyses of political power in the Third World.

As a theory of international oligopoly, postimperialism stresses the move toward a "transcultural 30 bourgeois class coalescence"--the transnational class domination of the world as a whole. Whenever corporate policy deviates, the local state effectively imposes indigenization. The conception of state autonomy goes much further than the revisionist position, while at the same time separating the transnational firms from any particular "core" country. This perspective fits well within the recent interest on the internationalization of production and the evolving international division of labor.

In fact, the postrevisionist position destroys geographical parameters East-West, North-South in favor of a single global view of market processes, regardless of the stage of development of local economies. Postrevisionism includes some elements of the agent-centered argument the power of the state to break away from structural constraints , while retaining the importance of structural processes in defining the context of economic development.

These combined elements state power and the context of development are part of an increasing interest reflected in the 31 postrevisionist literature with the evolving international division of labor, which will be more closely discussed in the last section of this chapter.

With the breakdown of the old relations of industrial and "backward" worlds and the emergence of NICs in the global market, there is a new analytical direction toward unraveling the intricacies of state autonomy and market processes. Before we delve into this topic, the following section will provide a summary view of the agent-structure debate, drawing from the last two sections. The Agent-Structure Debate What the previous discussion on agent-centered and structural arguments suggests is that each side makes its own contribution, but in different analytical domains.

The agent-centered conception of development-power linkages concentrates on the causal aspect of power relations. By capitalizing on resources accrued from development, actors can improve their power performance in the international system. The structural argument, however, focuses on the constraining character of structures in defining the parameters of an agent's freedom.

The power of a structure lies in shaping the developmental alternatives for aspiring actors. The two domains are often perceived as in opposition--a dialectic producing an unresolved dualism. The interconnections between the various power conceptions, as reviewed earlier in this chapter, provide the basis from which to explore the impact of development at the agency and structure levels. Agency produces structures that simultaneously serve as the conditions for reproduction of agency in a continuing process.

A central problem in social theory, which is directly applicable to this study, lies in adopting a balance between voluntarism and determinism. While the former stresses agency as creative and knowledgeable, the latter concentrates on the constraints surrounding social action.

One way of overcoming such a problem is to expand our conception of structure so as to capture agency's voluntarism. The "enabling" character of structure provides such a perspective. The mechanical view of social action--as something externally caused--stresses reproduction of social action, while enablement focuses on production, which is the key to understanding structural transformation.

Structures both constrain and enable social practices, while practices both embody a. Structure is often pictured as the anatomy of a social organism or the girders of a social edifice. Such images suggest that structure is rigid and static, as in Waltz's and Wallerstein's conceptions of the international system. But, in truth, it exists only in action, and action always has place and time. Although every society has a structure of domination, all actors draw on it and bend it to their own use.

Thus structure rules and resources, organized as properties of social systems and system reproduced relations between actors or collectivities, organized as regular social practices are two sides of a unifying concept, dubbed by Giddens as "structuration. Gidden's subjectivist ontology widens the concept of power to include all interaction as involving the use of power--drawing on resources in order to affect and order the environment. Giddens sees dominant actors as benefiting from the "enabling" character of structure.

Those in power establish a structure of domination through their own enabling process of resource deployment. This domination, in turn, constrains those over whom power is exercised. Giddens pays little attention to the ways in which the structure of domination may constraint the dominant actors themselves.

This is an important point because the source of constraint may constitute in itself an "enabling" factor for weaker actors in their own process of liberation. In other 34 words, weaker actors may use the existing structure to liberate themselves from the existing order, thus, helping transform the social system. The "enabling" character of structure is particularly important in the study of middle-power politics, because it elucidates the way through which weaker states have used the existing world order to transform their position in the international system.

What this dissertation seeks to show is that although the United States--as the post-war hegemon--established new rules in the international economic system e. To say that the United States established the capitalist system after World War 11 is ludicrous. It is fair to argue that the hegemon reshaped the rules of the game so as to benefit itself and dominate others.

However, the United States was not able to retain its dominant position, as the world capitalist system moved toward an internationalized network of production and the continuing diffusion of technology across borders. A careful understanding of "enablement" is required as one defines the limitations of dominant powers.

Structurationists; have become harsh critics of structural theorizing, particularly neo-realism, because structuralists tend to neglect the agent's ability to bring about structural transformation. Structuralism insists on viewing structures as constraining the choices of pre-existing state actors, while failing to account for the enabling character of structures.

NICs, as new "employees" in the building, are integrated into the workforce through a complex process of "workload expansion" the internationalization of production. Although one might argue that U. The laws operate at the market level under which efficiency and cost-effectiveness are supreme. Powerful states may attempt to bend the rules because of national security requirements, but ultimately local producers respond to market signals, rather than nationalist demands.

Much of the current debate about the decline in U. Power and the International Economic System What the previous discussion suggests is that one has to look at changes in the international economic system in order to understand the evolving power relations in world politics. After all, Brazil could not seek an end to its military alliance with the United States unless it felt secure in its position as an arms producer.

Such security, however, is grounded in Brazil's deepening integration in the world capitalist system--ground that is not always firm. This section outlines the context of aspiring powers' development policies, with particular attention to the role of technology in the promotion of industrial capability. The post-war rise in foreign direct investment FDI gave a new impetus to capital accumulation in underdeveloped societies.

The advent of worldwide industrial production led to the flow of commodities between plants of the same company. These "world market factories" drew on cheap labor in the creation of industrial enclaves in underdeveloped regions. The new conditions for the valorization and accumulation of capital generated a world market for production sites and labor, which included the use of both traditional industrialized and underdeveloped countries.

Therefore, the emerging system destroyed the traditional division of labor under which underdeveloped economies supplied raw materials to industrialized countries, while the latter supplied manufactured products. Foker Fr6bel, Jiirgen Heinrichs and Otto Kreye use the term "the new international division of labor" to designate that tendency that a undermines the traditional bisection of the world into a few industrialized countries on one hand, and a great majority of developing countries integrated into the world economy solely as raw material producers on the other, and M compels the increasing subdivision of manufacturing processes into a number of partial operations at different industrial sites throughout the world.

The authors see NIDL as an "institutional" innovation of capital itself. It is a consequence, rather than a cause, of the new conditions that emerged after World War II e. For aspiring powers, the evolving international economic system presented itself as an opportunity to promote fast industrialization, import substitution, and export promotion. The economic transformation, in turn, set the stage for the development of indigenous arms industries with a proliferation of suppliers in the international arms market.

As such, it becomes a critical part of economic policy-making with far-reaching implications to world trade. Technology transfers are thus used to close the gap. Third World nations, however, are ambivalent about the transfer of technology from advanced industrial centers. On the one hand, it promotes domestic economic transformation and improves the competitive position of national companies in the international market.

On the other hand, reliance on foreign technology leads to a dependent position that national security policy-makers find difficult to accept. Brazil's solution was to diversify the sources of technology so as to avoid excessive concentration from a single country. At the same time, the government promoted indigenous research and development. Such a strategy reflects what postrevisionists have theoretized as the combined elements of state autonomy and the context of development transnational capital and technology in a continuing interpenetration at the global level.

Concluding Remarks: The Paradox Revisited National security policy-making in the post-World War II order has to take into account both the increasing importance of high technology in weapons production and, at the same time, the internationalization of production, which encourages the diffusion of technology.

Because of competition in the international market, suppliers are not always eager to transfer technology. As a result, the level of technology available for'exports is under tight scrutiny. These authors present a contradictory conception of NIDL by making a geographical argument "northern" technology , while stressing the autonomy of the arms industry in an internationalized production process.

Rivalry among U. This factor rivalry among technology suppliers constitutes an "enabling" power resource for NICs in their effort to remain competitive in the world market. By threatening to change suppliers, NICs are able to extract technology-transfer agreements from unwiling trade partners. There are limits to NICs' developmental goals. Changes in the technology--particularly in the arms business-are so rapid that such a search for foreign suppliers becomes a continuing developmental priority.

This dependency is clearly a paradox in the state's national security strategy, given its interest in severing those dependent ties. Even if local producers diversify their sources of technology, they do not set the pace of innovation. They are technology takers. Such a dependency only invites fears of catastrophic events, such as the withholding of critical technology by a hostile foreign government in the middle of a national-security crisis.

This possibility, in fact, was witnessed during the Falklands War in , when the European Community cut technology transfers to Argentina, crippling its defense industry. Such a paradox does not constitute a drawback for local producers. As long as they remain competitive in the global market, the source of technology is of no interest. For the state in aspiring powers, though, there is always the possibility of subordinating political interests for the sake of economic ones.

This dissertation explores such a case in Brazil's decision to sign a new military agreement with the United States in , despite the former's proclaimed "independence" in the late s. While the signing of this agreement does not necessarily imply an intention to implement it, 41 there was a clear demonstration that economic interests as articulated by local producers under the influence of market forces took precedent over political requirements. The Brazilian military's perception of a geopolitical threat during the Cold War i.

The United States, however, did not attach the same strategic importance to the Southern Hemisphere. After the war, the United States transferred a significant amount of arms technology to Western Europe and Japan so as to counter the Soviet military presence in Europe and Asia. Military assistance to Brazil consisted mainly of old technology and aging equipment.

Even after the military came to power in , the United States did not transfer any significant technology or sophisticated equipment. Brazil's decision to turn to the newly modernized European arms industry for help proved beneficial. The transfer of European technology allowed the Brazilian industry to develop a complex arms production capability to the point of a successful entry into the export market in the mids. The newly found sense of military independence led to the 42 cancellation by Brazil in of the military assistance agreement it had signed twenty-five years earlier with the United States.

The need to acquire ever more advanced arms technology to compete in the world market led Brazil to agree in to a new military agreement with the United States, this time seeking the transfer of sophisticated arms technology from U. While Brazilian local producers welcome technology imports from the United States, the state does not encourage it because of the political stipulations attached to them, such as not allowing the export of arms built with U.

Although the United States would like to build closer relations with an emerging power, it is wary of sophisticated arms technology transfers to the Third World. As a result, the states on both sides have signed an agreement of which they do not intend to make extensive use.

Suppliers in the United States see arms sales as a commercial deal rather than as an instrument of foreign policy. This pragmatic position creates a direct conflict between commercial and strategic interests. The signing of the agreement for the United States represents the dilemma that exists between these two interests. For Brazil, as an emerging power, the signing of an agreement with a technology supplier represents an important additional source of innovation which improves the competitive position of local producers in the international market.

Nevertheless, dependence on a dominant power such 43 as the United States requires a political and strategic commitment that Brazil has avoided since its "declaration of military independence" in The ambivalence found in the implementation of the agreement represents the bargaining process that exists in Brazil's national security policy circles between commercial and strategic interests.

This study is divided into two parts. The first part considers theoretical propositions found in the development-power linkages Chapter 1 and applies them to the study of the post-World War II international arms market Chapter 2. The second part takes the specific case study, U.

The last chapter Chapter 6 broadens the case study to include a comparative view of other middle powers under a suggested analytical framework. Before the case study is fully developed, the next chapter details the expansion of the international arms market after World War Much of the discussion in the present chapter about development and power is applied to the issue of arms trade.

The next chapter discusses the effort of many NICs to develop indigenous arms production as a critical national security strategy. This effort reflects the agency-level argument as discussed in this chapter. At the structural level, the expansion of technology transfers is presented as an "enabling" factor in Third World arms producers' competitiveness.

Notes 1. For the purpose of the present study, the term "NIC' is an economic description of a country which has attained a level of development which sets it apart from other Third World countries, while the political-strategic expression of the same development is found in the term "middle power. For a more detailed look at the way the term "middle powers" is used in the international relations literature, see Steven L. Martin's Press, See, for example, Kenneth N. Organski and Kugler portray mobility as a "power transition," with fundamental consequences to international security.

This concept will be discussed in greater detail in this chapter. Both proponents of realism and interdependence have made this distinction in their textbooks. Washington, D. For an interdependence viewpoint, see Robert 0.

Keohane and Joseph S. For an excellent study of Third World acquisition of missile technology, see Janne E. Lamar Bowles, interview with author, Houston, Tx. Bowles is a senior advisor to the President of Rockwell International. Stanley E. Krasner, Structural Conflict, Organski, World Politics, 2nd ed. New York: Alfred A. The term semi-periphery , however, has remained vague and obscure. Goldfrank Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, , , in which the author suggests: "Wallerstein has done little to specify what is distinctive about a semi-peripheral location in the world-system.

The category seems to serve as a catchall for all of the countries that includes such diverse cases as Canada, China, Iran, and Poland, as well as Brazil and South Africa. Paul M. Lukes himself has argued in an edited volume, Power New York: New York University Press, that perhaps the search for a generally satisfying definition of power is a mistake: "What unites the various views of power is too thin and formal to provide a generally satisfying definition, applicable to all cases.

Robert A. Dahl, Who Governs? Lukes, Power. Foucault, "Disciplinary Power and Subjection," in Poe ed. See, for instance, David A. Ibid, ix. Max Weber, Economy and Society, trans. Roth and C. Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations, 5th ed.

New York: Knopf, Italics in original. Hirschman, "Beyond asymmetry: critical notes on myself as a young man and on some other old friends," International Organization 32 Winter : Organski, World Politics, Although Organski presents these stages as a logical outcome of international processes, they should be viewed more as a historical outcome, particularly linked to two world wars in this century. Organski, World Politics, ; emphasis in original. Sen, The Military Origins of Industrialisation, Krugman, ed.

Waltz, Theory of International Politics. Alexander Wendt, "The agent-structure problem in international relations theory," International Organization 41 Summer : Wallerstein, "Dependence in an Interdependent World. Mitchell A. Seligson Boulder and London: Westview Press, , Immanuel Wallerstein, "Semi-peripheral countries and the contemporary world crisis," Theory and Society 3 Winter : ; A.

Roberts, "The sub-imperialism of the Baganda. Wallerstein, "The Relevance of the Concept," Cardoso and Faletto, Dependency and Development, David G. Becker, Jeff Frieden, Sayre P. Schatz and Richard L. Sklar, eds. Giddens, New Rules. Stewart R. Giddens, Central Problems.

Alexander Wendt, "The agent-structure problem in international relations theory," International Organization 41 Summer : ; Alexander Wendt and Raymond Duvall. Ernst-Otto Czempiel and James N. Rosenau Lexington, Mass. Heath and Company, , Artistic directors of radio stations talk about radio vs. Alexandre Hovoruski. O mundo dos games debatido pelos principais executivos que movimentam o Mercado. The world of games discussed by the main executives that drive the Market.

Owners of the main companies that cater to the biggest shows in the country talk about logistics and the creation of projects for events such as Rock in Rio, Lollapalooza and Rio2C. Cesio Lima. Creative executive, artists and entrepreneurs from the digital world talk about content strategy, formats, digital platforms, entertainment and communities of interest. Bruno Duarte. Managers of the new scene coming from the suburbs, peripheries and communities talk about how street music has been winning over the world and how their personal stories connect with the movement.

Executive Editor and publisher of a weekly international trade report on the global music industry talks about how to combine art and business to better benefit artists and creators. Copyright lawyers discuss royalties and licensing and the nuances of copyright collection and modernization in the digital environment. Challenges and future scenarios for the Ticketing business in Brazil and the world. Specialists, artists and art collectives debate on art, culture, technology and the importance of the engagement from young people as a major creative drive for the Brazilian music segments.

GG Albuquerque. The researcher, musician, writer and filmmaker seeks to outline the festive soul of the Brazilian people, promoting a journey in time, exploring Rio de Janeiro from modinha and lundu to bossa nova and funk. Marcelo Gularte.

Poet, musician, researcher, psychoanalyst, filmmaker, folklorist and world record holder in the field of literature. A specialist on the matter, with an extensive portfolio of content creation for concerts cases speaks about the technical challenges in creating visuals for giant screens.

Tito Sabatini. Entrepreneurs and producers talk about new ways to produce independent music. Specialists and artists talk about the new talents in Brazilian instrumental music, and reflect on the times of transition and transformation on the concert and festival circuit.

Alessandra Debs. A superintendente do ECAD fala sobre o que mudou nos pagamentos de direitos autorias com as novas realidades do streaming, celulares, computadores e TVs. The Superintendent for the Brazilian royalty clearinghouse—ECAD—, talks about what has changed in royalty payments with the new reality of streaming, mobile devices, computers and TVs. Through his experience as producer, record company artistic director and cultural journalist, Leonardo Rivera talks about the transformations of the music industry in Brazil in recent years.

Leonardo Rivera. Specialists describe the actions and initiatives aiming to foster musical entertainment in Britain, Spain and Argentina. Producers and businesspersons discuss the network joining 23 small- and medium-sized stages in Rio de Janeiro, with a combined public of thousand people per year. Alexandre Rossi Circo Voador. Elisa Eisenlohr. Specialists and Artists talk about a slew of new artists have been creating a music that connects the afro-Brazilian ancestry with modernity.

Kamille Viola. The founding partners of Queremos! Project speak on the demand analysis platform and the concert production house that built up the concept for its own festival. Felipe Continentino. Roberto Mello. Experts in formats talk about key elements for creating, producing and selling formats worldwide. Leading channels and production companies of scripted content talk about market demands and the most recent success stories.

Andrew Nissen. Each speaker will talk about their respective program, project or entity, presenting a general panorama of its history, relevance, and scope of activity. Barbara Sturm. Josephine Bourgois. Igor Isquierdo Celeste. Ling Ding. Lawyer specializing in tax law talks about the risks and details involved in an international co-production and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of opening a production company abroad.

Ruan Fernandes Lira. Daniel Celli. Producers talk about projects developed in the last few years, after the decentralization of production in the FSA Audiovisual Sectoral Fund , and their strategies for dealing with the international market. Aline Belli. In such a culturally diverse country, there is increasing demand for regional themes. Ana Lucia Gomes. Cantora multi-instrumentista, compositora e arranjadora paulistana.

Em , produziu seu primeiro CD solo. In , he produced his first solo CD. His first album was released in In , Jota. Born in the city of Londrina, Simone Mazzer is a singer and actor. This band came into the national spotlight in , with their debut album O Intacto, produced by Korzus members Marcello Pompeu and Heros Trench.

In , his second album, Crise, dropped. This duo, comprising Felipe Ricca and Rodrigo Silvestrini, has been formed in and achieved recognition on YouTube with the unplugged version of their own song Meu Bem totalling more than 1. A multimedia artist who has started her career as a child, in the circus, where she performed the trapeze act for a decade.

Her first album came out in May In it, three of the tracks were a partnership with Marcelo Jeneci, and one with Samuel Rosa, from Skank. He will release an album with the same title in May Born in London, she arrived in Rio in and became a hit after being discovered singing on the streets. She released her first record in , Home, with her own songs produced by Mario Caldato Jr, one of the most respected professionals on the market. A carioca Giulia Be, de apenas 19 anos, se destaca pela sua voz grave e doce e pelo som pop progressivo.

With just 19 years of age, she is considered as one of the great promises in Brazilian pop. Giulia gained popularity by publishing covers on her YouTube channel. Apaixonada pela cultura urbana carioca, a rapper participou e venceu alguns campeonatos de Slams, de poesia urbana. Passionate for the Carioca urban culture, this rapper has entered and won a few urban and slam poetry contests.

Her first single and video clip, Do Batuque ao Bass, talks about black cultural resistance and rap. Mariana Volker ia a singer, songwriter and instrumentalist from Rio. Her new record is already in production and she has released the videoclip for Gigantesca, the first single. One of the most promising names in the recent wave of talents coming from Pernambuco.

He was in Sagaranna, band where he played the fiddle, and now he is in Marsa, a band from Recife. Gaucha singer and songwriter, living and working in Rio, she has released her first record in In that year, she was heralded as one of the most promising newcomers into the musical scene. Martte is a pop singer who began singing in church, at the age of eight.

He has released singles like Antes que seja tarde, available on all digital platforms. In , this project was born, created by Ualax MC, aiming at bringing representation, expression, self esteem and black resistance to the Baixada lowlands region. International executives discuss content commissioning and present business models for international co-production and distribution.

Brazilian executives present their editorial lines, co-production strategies and content commissioning, and say what they are looking for in the market. Kids pitching session for five feature-lengths and TV series. Egghead turns any problem into a surreal adventure. Dreamtime Stories is a compilation of original stories in which their gender neutral characters are driven by values such as generosity, healthy exploration and creativity to solve problems in a positive ways. Animation series based on what children say when they observe weird images through an electronic microscope.

They live on the Enchanted Island, an origami designed place where they will learn how to take care of their friends and nature while having fun. Produtor, diretor, roteirista, animador Producer, director, scriptwriter, animator, Split Studio. When a strange man arrives to town, he will stir up a series of supernatural happenings and Nina and her friends will try to figure out what is goin on.

While searching for his lost parents, he stumbles across the greatest mysteries of mankind. Nico, the only boy in a family of sisters, struggles to survive alongside his tumultuous sisters. The first intergalactic exchange student has arrived! But now he must to survive the madness of his new extraterrestrial family!

The Anima Forum will present the project and the mapping methodology of the animation market, conducted by Anima Mundi in partnership with JLeiva. Preview participants will also be able to register early to participate in the next edition of Anima Forum, which will be held during Anima Mundi Carina Shimizu. A new Brazilian generation of music artists able to transform a conservative society through gender identity deep reflection.

A novidade? The novelty? They are women! From the jungle to become a huge success in the music world with more than one million records sold in USA. Roots: a history of union between Jamaica and Brazil. An unique mix of exploration, adventure and scientific inquiry, revealing an unknown chapter of the lake of the legends.

With the help of a humanoid robot, an international team will explore the remains of the Aurora, the Titanic of the Titicaca. O que diferencia uma planta medicinal de uma droga? What is Ayahuasca? What are the harms and what are the benefits? Fiction pitching session for five feature-lengths and TV series. It is a cursed place ruled by superstition, where only the strong survive. A 12 year old boy, technology-addicted, is swept back in time to the year of and has to learn how to live as a kid of that time, while seeking a way to get back home, unaware of a a life-and-death mission he will have to fulfill.

Scheme is a feature-length feature-length comedy that blends football, crime, and farmhouse country music, all linked by clumsy characters and a keen sense of humor. When the sun kills the whites, everyone wants to be black. Two brothers with very distinct personalities must learn to live together in a gaming house where a team of nerds and underdogs find they way up in the world of e-sports.

Ceo da Fenix e Presidente da All Dubbing apresentam os produtos exclusivos dessas duas empresas criadas e lideradas por empreendedoras femininas. The CEO da Fenix e the President of All Dubbing present the exclusive products that these two companies led by women entrepreneurs have created.

Ana Motta. Accessibility is the new keyword in times of equality and inclusion. A group of more than 16 million people with visual and hearing disabilities will start to consume audiovisual products in movie theaters. Ronaldo Bettini Jr. Pioneers in accessibility, accessibility director and commercial director present the trajectory of the company that for over twenty years has developed accessibility solutions for audiovisual content and innovations in resources such as closed captions, audio description and Brazilian sign language.

Alexandre de Almeida. In a world in constant transformation, exists a generation that is hedging their bets in businesses with a purpose and rethinking how to use money to build a more sustainable society. Join us to discover a new way with those who actively innovate in the social finance and social impact ecosystem.

Executivas e fundadoras de startups falam sobre o mercado e o papel da mulher no empreendedorismo. Startup executives and founders talk about the market and the role of women in entrepreneurship. Juliana Brito. Startup founders present innovative solutions combining social and environmental impacts.

Caio Miranda. Apresentadora Presentation. De um lado, as saborosas Junk Foods, do outro, as nutritivas Healthy Foods. Prepare for Battle! On one side, tasty Junk Foods, on the other, nutritious Healthy Foods. Renowned chefs from all over the world were called upon to lead these armies. Who will be the winner? This is the backdrop of our project: Food Wars is a digital game focusing on Food and based on a Real Time Strategy genre, for mobile phones, tablets and computers.

A gamified platform that uses techniques and game mechanics to engage, teach and increase productivity. While instructing through playful and interactive challenges, it generates real-time information to facilitate team management. A platform to create artistic images using artificial intelligence algorithms. A neural network-based software creates illustrations and sketches from professional-quality user photographs.

A network of sellers where brands can promote incentives in exchange for the sale of their products. A Startup that seeks to act at the forefront of the 4. Its main product is the Vitau IoT system, an intelligent system to monitor and predict industrial asset failures. The system corresponds to a network of IoT sensors for vibration and equipment temperature monitoring. The portal places the forecast of the. We have developed a webservice communication API, along with mobile applications to be used by e-commerce, virtual banks, receivables brokerage, crypto-currency brokers, virtual stores and many other activities to fight fraud.

Cartezyan Plataforma aberta de investimentos que conecta pessoas aos mercados financeiros. Open investment platform that connects people to financial markets. Startup for delivery of organic products in Rio de Janeiro.

In four years of operation, we have established successful partnerships with several certified producers, and today, we have the largest diversity of organic foods in a single platform. We seek to expand rural connectivity by making ourselves the connecting link between the small organic farmer and the final urban consumer.

We propose to develop a technological and logistics solution to provide scalability to organic production through the crossing of consumption data with planting planning. HealthTech Startup that develops a smart, non-invasive, portable and low-cost device that facilitates screening for various diseases and infections by means of a breathalyzer test. Biohack has come to address the problem of waste generation by industries and the growing demand for clean and renewable energy. We transform organic waste, with any moisture content, into high value added biochar energy.

A platform that helps people or companies to make social impact easily. Entertainment Television Brasil. Uma conversa com An evangelist from Unreal talks about how their game engine is revolutionizing the creative process of animations, games and extended experiences through a level of production optimization that brings realism to the works in real time.

Paulo Souza. Composers, designers and executives debate on the importance of audio as a character in immersive experiences, and on how to think about sound composing, environment, fun, immersion and message transmission through sound and music. Bettina Calmon. Sector leaders debate on the importance of Intellectual Property in positioning and strengthening the Games and XR market, and how to build up that IP. Marcos Alves. Producers and specialists talk about the creative process in bringing the works to life, about the concept behind festivals and present the distribution channels for such content.

Ana Arruda. Open time for equipment and software demos, chats with specialists in the Games and XR market. Os principais desafios enfrentados pelas empresas brasileiras que criam e distribuem jogos e entretenimento XR pelo mundo. The main challenges faced by Brazilian companies creating and distributing games and VR entertainment abroad. What have they learned so far and tips for market newcomers. Artist and developer talk about the artistic and creative process in executing the Hana Hana experience.

The prototype already has , players and millions of hands created in nearly 50 exhibitions across the world, with a new version to be launched at Rio2C. Pesquisadores e Executivos apresentam o ecossistema de XR no Brasil, as oportunidades do mercado, as empresas, buyers e investidores. Researchers and Executives present the XR ecosystem in Brazil, the market opportunities, the companies, buyers and investors.

The curator for VR Days—the largest VR event in the Netherlands—presents an overview of the VR ecosystem in Europe, the market opportunities that exist, the companies, the buyers, investors and the outlook for co-productions with the Brazilian Market. Doede Holtkamp. The gaming industry is one of the biggest in entertainment and it is extremely competitive. The execution of projects relies heavily on a complex, multidisciplinary chain, demanding planning and integration in a product that, in turn, depends ever more increasingly on creativity and communication with its intended audience.

Get to know the stages that comprise the production of a game, from its inception, to project structuring, its execution, and release, as well as two cases, one of a mobile and the other of PC and console games, delving deep into their successes and errors in the Brazilian market.

Pedro Thiers. Presentation of the various forms of financing and monetization used by game developers in Brazil. Gabriel Ferreira. Developers talk about the indirect communication between developer and player, the creative process behind levels in electronic games, campaigns and missions, and the nuanced distinction between the artistic and technical processes. Lucas Thiers. Specialists talk about the importance of audio in the experience and content localization as a means to elicit empathy from the player.

Developers and specialists debate on the importance of the ethics code in the creation and development of games and immersive experiences, the implications to design and the responsibility on producers and players. Camila Slotfeldt. Alberto Moura. Unity is currently the most widely used real-time creation tool for games, animation and other vertical industry segments automotive, construction and others in the world. Many new features were presented for come get to know Unity.

What is it, how big companies and indie studios alike use it, as well as getting to know first hand the latest updates, how to start with it and where to go first. The main tips, workflow and how to export this kind of technology to strengthen the bond between the brand and their customers. Karina Israel. Developers and academics talk about the use of gaming technologies and techniques to improve engagement and for better retention of content for education and training purposes. Bruno Castelo Branco.

Specialists talk about education and the use of XR. How Extended Reality is revolutionizing education through engagement and learning—from immersion capability to the possibility of benchmarking performance. Alexandre Calil. Alexandre Kikuchi. He speaks about the creative process and the particularities of writing for TV and cinema. Lucas Paraizo. Yet, not always what we say is what the other person understands.

Specialists discuss the Meia Palavra study, on how deluded we are in believing that communicating more is the same as communicating better. What delusions are those? Ana Paula Xongani. Responsible for wardrobe in telenovelas such as Avenida Brasil, and Novo Mundo, Marie talks about the importance of the wardrobe in bulding characters, how she builds a two-way communication channel with actors and directors, and the creative process of conceiving the outfits.

Being producer, media professional, screenwriter, influencer… How to combine all those roles? Is being a creator a trend? Is this the best way of working with an influencer, developing the content with them and using their own channel to publicize it? Children of the next generation have been born already immersed in a digital world, redefining patterns of behavior. Against the daily bustle we have to face nowadays, what room do they take up in our time? Telecine will bring survey data about the consumption behavior in Brazil to share with the market players, letting them know how relevant they remain even with such surplus of content.

Daniela Evelyn. Globo Lab is an Idea Lab to foster innovation and strengthen the relationships between creators and mobilizers. Promoted by Globo Universidade, it is a social responsibility unit, Globo Lab gathers creative and professional powerhouses from Globo for cocreation activities.

Helena Klang. May Martins. The stories we tell children influence how they see the world and relate to society. Anna Mezachi. He will also bring concepts and details to help illustrate the atmosphere in the dramaturgy. Venha conferir sobre a Arte do Improviso. Is there a technique, or improv is just a matter of being gifted? Come find out about the Art of the Improv Fernando Caruso. Everyone wants to create content that has that truly authentic storytelling that can make their brand more relevant, generating lots of leads.

Every single brand today wants this. But is it possible? Yes, it is. Analisando milhares de canais, temos novos insights sobre essa caixa-preta chamada YouTube. Creators, brands and media outlets are always trying to unravel its secrets to climb up on the searches, to improve their numbers and to aid in planning their content. By analyzing thousands of channels, we now have new insights about this mysterious black-box that is YouTube.

Lucas Herdy. Telecine describes how the company is undertaking its digital transformation by implementing a horizontal and collaborative culture, preparing the company to operate in a more agile manner, ready to face the chalenges of being a B2C company. Marcel Klemm. Director of major hits at Globo details his views on directing. Luiz Henrique Rios Diretor Director.

As imagens mais marcantes, os fatos mais relevantes, as cenas mais emocionantes. More than fifty years of history, in Brazil and in the World. The most shocking images, the most memorable facts, the most exciting scenes. This lecture will deal with the possibilities for audiovisual production, for documentaries or fiction films, or even for brand content. Pablo Bioni.

Como aproximar o olhar feminino? O que temos feito para trazer mais visibilidade para obras audiovisuais femininas? Establishing gender equality as a strategy for the entire organization has become top priority nowadays. Parity Metrics help to establish a fairer dialog. Thinking about that, Canal Brasil has gathered data in an attempt to set a few parameters for this discussion. How has Canal Brasil been trying to reduce the disparity in its programming? How to bring representativity to the screen?

What have we been doing to bring higher visibility to feminine audiovisual works? Como estar em todos os lugares ao mesmo tempo? Long gone are the days when producing content for a single platform was enough, and a single device fulfilled all our needs and desires as consumers. With the developing technology, is time hurrying us on or are we who have lost our bearings? How to be everywhere at once? How to keep up with everything that is going on without losing our minds?

Vanessa Oliveira. Roberta Ramos. Wilton Souza. De onde vem a criatividade? Existem maneiras de desenvolver essa habilidade cada vez mais importante para o desempenho de qualquer atividade? Where does creativity come from?

The panel will be mediated by an executive from WeWork. Babi Bono. Gabriela Diuana. Rodrigo Medina. Come to discover, redefine, expand… in an exclusive chat with Rio2C speaker Ralph Peticov, co-founder and experience designer at HackTown, a professional who began his career in the advertising film world, but who found himself having to rethink things because of his restlessness and the knack he has for hacking trends. He brings his creative and disruptive vision to the change he wants to happen to the world.

Ralph Peticov. But what an impact it does have and will continue to have on the world of business? Come to discover, redefine, expand… in an exclusive chat with Rio2C speaker Felipe Oliva, co-founder and CSO at Squid, the first influence marketing platform in Brazil specializing in microinfluencers. Its main goal is to help brands to humanize their communication by working with digital influencers. Sebraelab is a space for stimulating creativity, innovation, the consumption of information, the generation of new knowledge, continuous learning and multiple connections in business.

Heliana Marinho. Production Director for Discovery Network Brasil discusses the new business models that have been developed by the channel and the importance of Branded Content for communication with the audience. Adriana Cechetti. Lucas Foster. Executivos apresentam a linha editorial do canal E! Executives present the editorial line of E! Entertainment channel, how they perform co-productions and possible business models. Glauco Sabino. Executivos apresentam um case de sucesso e discutem possibilidades sobre Branded Content Executives present a success case and discuss possibilities relevant to Branded Content German Carmona.

Entertainment Television. How is the Creative Economy impacted by this transformation process? Rodrigo Arnaut. Experts give tips on creative economy projects. Executives present the editorial line of Record and PlayPlus channels, how they perform co-productions and possible business models. Josmar Bueno. The Creative Economy that drives the outskirts: how creativity creates value in vulnerable territories. Suzana Barroso de Mattos.

Silvia Elias. The concept of innovation, the disruptive businesses and the innovative company models in the audiovisual segment. Presenting startup cases, funding, and amplification of the audiovisual market through the use of a media business network.

Specialist talks about intellectual property protection of software in the current scenario, emphasizing its importance and how it can be obtained at INPI. The fully online and automated e-Software e-form system will be introduced, featuring innovations in the registration model that ensure the right to ownership. Helmar Alvares. Expert consultant discusses the creative industry and its trends: innovation, globalization and projects.

Debate on incentive laws, their impacts and how entrepreneurs can improve on project development and fundraising. The lecture aims to discuss these themes as a way to better understand the numbers and their impacts on the creative economy industry. Tips for ideal project will be part of this conversation.

Ingrid Reis. All areas of the creative economy will at some point have contact with this scenario, and exchanging experiences facilitates the life of the creative entrepreneur. Venha conhecer essa iniciativa. Crowdfunding to finance cultural projects has gained a heavyweight ally. Come in to know all about it. Ricardo Rivera. Venha conhecer as oportunidades do projeto.

Barbara Oliveira. A manager in the Client and Institutional Relations Department at BNDES talks about business management and presents financial products aimed at micro-and small-business clients. Rodrigo Pedrosa.

Alex Costa. Created by Broders, Madam Galeria is a VR experience that will take you on a journey through the cosmos. In this dark and mysterious place you will learn a little bit about yourself and maybe even get a few hints about the future, consulting with a rather eccentric psychic. The film takes us to meet the squatters and to visit the place where they have lived for the last eleven years. The film also shows how the occupation act, in and of itself, as done by the Association of the Homeless, is akin to civil disobedience as used by Gandhi and Martin Luther King.

Become one in a group of real friends in the city of Brasilia. Share memories and live their intimate moments with them. Jelly Beams is a fast-paced, colorful and unpretentious shooter, where you have to destroy slime monsters as quickly as possible. The game is a VR experience with theme and graphics that attract a wide audience and very simple controls, ideal for a first experience with Virtual Reality.

Have you ever wondered what if you could understand hos the human body forms before there is any awareness of existence? Originally narrated by two times Academy Award nominee Samantha Morton, Wonderful You has now a version with Portuguese language narration by voice artist and researcher Simone Kliass, granting to the local audience a unique and unforgettable experience for those who live it.

As a result of a collective creation VR workshop, the audience is invited to hop aboard a teletransporter, traveling between Brasilia and Amsterdam, in a retrofuturistic trip between the two cities. The player is the eponymous magnificent knight in his trials and tribulations, guided by the Dark Face, to save fellow knight Henri de Toulouse y Gaudi—Keeper of the Order in the Universe—and therefore avoid the Great Chaos.

You may relax and enjoy the peacefulness that almost always envelops this island, or jump up and down and shake it all about to call the Boto Marinho carnival band to party with the revellers. After being captured and sent to the land of the Ekituman, and having been discarded after being subject to genetic experimentation, you have been tossed into the Sinkhole, a deep cavern from which escape is impossible. Elias the boatman, however, claims to know a way out and intends to help you to escape.

Will you be able to? A world of diverse and memorable adventures anyone can live through. Story: A teleportation experiment gone wrong sends you to a temple built by some unknown civilization. Now you have to uncover the mysteries of the temple in order to come back home. In , Germany lives through the rise of nazism. A jewish woman prepares to flee a society that persecutes her for her very identity. Made by gamers, and for gamers, it presents a new format in wireless multiplayer entertainment, proportioning a fully immersive, connected and exciting virtual reality experience.

Lomoromoe from the Tapac and Ariko from the Matheniko are brought together in virtual reality, to safely meet their enemy and discuss the violent conflict in hope of creating more empathy and understanding for one another. In this VR documentary 10 year old Rena talks directly to you, her future self. What does she think her life will be like when she grows up? Being an adult, did you become who you wanted to be when you were 10?

Discover the dreams, fears and secrets of others—and leave your own for others to find. In this award-winning social experience, human thoughts exist as sleeping creatures that can be awakened to reveal voice-recorded stories of other participants who were here before you. These anonymous stories are revealing and inspiring, encouraging reflection and introspection. To progress, you must leave your own stories behind for others to uncover.

In Die Fernweh Oper you will visit a perpetual opera performed by a star in the form of a 50 ft tall opera singer named Asteria, who sings especially for you and about your foolish love for her. Just as with the stars you see at night, she has already died years ago and what you see of her is her last light that reaches your eyes.

Die Fernweh Oper consists of three scenes. Scene 1 will allow you to listen to Asteria singing. In scene 3 you will visit the custodian whose job it is to replace the stars who have died, among which is Asteria. Set on the open ocean in , Age of Sail is the story of William Avery, an old sailor adrift and alone in the North Atlantic.

When Avery reluctantly rescues Lara, who has mysteriously fallen overboard, he finds redemption and hope in his darkest hours. In a last desperate attempt to communicate a man decides to lock his boyfriend inside his mind. A raging stream of consciousness unfolds, shedding light on a flawed relationship. MindPalace is an animated 6DoF VR experience that revolves around the idea of what could happen if you could look inside the mind of your loved one. Not just as a visitor, though, but dissolving into their perception entirely.

All their truths lying bare for you to see. Uninhibited and uncontrollable. What if your home becomes the place you fear? An Iraqi father returns to Fallujah to face the threat of improvised explosive devices. Join him in his home and discover the unfolding of a tragic event. Home After War is room scale interactive VR experience crafted with photogrammetry and stereo capture.

But since there is no room for a dysfunctional lift in a 5-star hotel, the lift is to be replaced. The soul anguishes about the inevitable outcome HanaHana is a VR playground unlike any other: Immersed in an otherworldly desert and haunting soundscape, the player experience a call to adventure and creativity. He or she is granted with the magic power to seed the surreal landscape with giant hands which bloom and unfurl like flowers into endless dizzying structures. In this lecture, I will share the experience I have gathered in my fifteen years as a professional, talk about my daily responsibilities and explain a bit about the production stages of a TV program and its broadcasting.

I will also share a few curiosities about the backstage part of a TV show. Vladimir Nascimento. Luiz Carlos Jr. Conceptualization and development of full 3D in 4K, in conjunction to direction, production and set design. Uno Oliveira. Get to know how data can help on a daily basis with the creative process of a Digital Communications team.

Carlos Alberto Ferreira. Renowned actor shares his career and experience in a chat with the audience. Claudio tells his experience as production manager, backstage tidbits, production challenges. Claudio Dager. Marcelo Souza conta como foi conquistar e passar pelos desafios que o transformaram em Diretor de Tecnologia do Globo.

Yesterday an intern, today a Director. Marcelo Souza talks about what it was like to achieve and overcome the challenges that have made him the Technology Director for Globo. Marcelo Souza. A survey by Sexy Hot, the biggest adult channel in Brazil, took a deep dive into the behavior of the consumer of porn in Brazil and divided consumers into five behavioral profiles. In addition to identifying the profile, the survey has also collected demographic data on those consumers. Every one of us has a story that would make for a great movie script.

Inspired by that, Telecine pays homage to women with the theme Women who Make Cinema, an initiative that gathers true stories, told by real women. In this panel, Telecine will tell what inspired the brand and what it was like to identify with these women and stories, among so many other stories that would have made for great movie scripts.

Check this out: an interview with Felipe Ret, in the form of a chat—in song—about urban music. Filipe Ret. Technology is an increasingly crucial part of our lives-from the moment we wake up to when we go to sleep, it is practically impossible to extricate it from our daily lives. Bubu e as Corujinhas is an Brazilian animated series with a strong educational and pedagogical content, especially created to become an educational entertainment tool for children, broadcast throughout Latin America by the Disney Channel and Disney Junior.

Aiming to address how the environment has been mistreated since the beginning of the 20th century, the production brings back historical characters and compiles testimonies from representatives of diverse groups related to the theme: the list includes indigenous people, environmentalists, journalists, artists and intellectuals, among other people who have been fighting to preserve this legacy.

Joana, a teenager, feeds her soul with literature and rock. In , when amnesty is granted in Brazil, she lives with her family in Paris. Overnight and against her will, Joana moves back to the country she barely remembers. In the early s, in Rio de Janeiro, the city she was born in and where her father has forcedly disappeared, she recovers pieces of memory from a fragmented childhood.

Not everything is real, not everything is imagination. And as she remembers, Joana is able to write her own story in the present tense. O filme explora a vida e a carreira de Ginsburg. At the age of 85, U. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg has developed a lengthy legal legacy while becoming an unexpected pop culture icon.

Um filme fundamental para pensar os limites do humor de hoje. The film portrays the period in which national humor had fewer limits From the decompressing wave released with the end of military censorship to the virtual inexistence of the? An important film to think through limits imposed to humor today. Simonal seduzia as plateias, as mulheres e deixava os homens com inveja. The rise and fall of Wilson Simonal, Brazilian singer who enjoyed great success during the 60s and early 70s.

Simonal captivated audiences, seduced women and was the envy of men. An artist with a great voice, a first class interpreter, charismatic and with success and fame constantly smiling at him. But none of this saved Simonal from making the biggest mistake of his life: pretending to be a military dictatorship protege to teach a foe a lesson.

From then on, he was labeled a rat by all media outlets in the country and saw his career sunk. The tireless struggle for the right to live freely of the writer Rosiska Darcy de Oliveira, who lived three centuries in a lifetime: grew up with values from the 19th century, was revolutionary in the 20th and resists today in the 21st century to the conservative wave sweeping the planet.

Rosiska belives in the emergence of the feminine as a way to change the world. Febrace presents the 3 winning projects in the category engineering. Colunista da Folha de S. Paulo fala como o escritor J. A columnist for Folha de S. Paulo tells how J. Tolkien broke all the rules of modern literary creation and conquered the world, by gambling on telling stories with made-up languages, using a literary recreation of ancient and medieval storytelling, and by building a meticulously detailed world.

Content creators talk about sharing their worlds with unique details that inspire, motivate and engage and how they disseminate quality content with high doses of inspiration, good advice, high spirits, fashion and delicious recipes throughout digital platforms to connect and touch people. Luiza Brasil. Guilherme Melles, general director of Quebrando o Tabu Breaking the Taboo , will talk the about the brand that appeared in the cinema, grew in social media and today is on TV in its second season.

Nossa curiosidade? E diminui nossa ansiedade? Eu acredito que encontrei um caminho para equilibrar trabalho e lazer. O que te move? Quero refletir contigo nessa palestra que vai te tirar do lugar! In this instant world in which we live on the verge of singularity, what moves our successes? Our curiosity? And what lessens our anxiety? I believe I have found a way to balance work and recreation.

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