DNA-binding proteins could be purified via the isolation of DNA- protein complexes and released from the complexes by reversing the cross-linking. By using this method, we were able to identify more than one hundred DNA-binding proteins , such as proteins involved in transcription, gene regulation, DNA replication and repair, and a large number of proteins which are potentially associated with DNA and DNA-binding proteins.
This method should be generally applicable to the investigation of other nucleic acid-binding proteins , and hold great potential in the comprehensive study of gene regulation, DNA damage response and repair, as well as many other critical biological processes at proteomic level. The human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein displays distinct kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA binding and exchange.
Here, we characterized the kinetics and thermodynamics of mtSSB binding to ssDNA by equilibrium titrations and stopped-flow kinetic measurements. Global fitting of both the equilibrium and kinetic data afforded estimates for the rate and equilibrium constants governing the formation of SSB 60 and SSB 30 complexes and for the transitions between the two binding modes. In conclusion, our results indicate that human mtSSB shares many physicochemical properties with EcoSSB and that the differences may be explained by the lack of an acidic, disordered C-terminal tail in human mtSSB protein.
Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent machines that dynamically alter the chromatin packaging of eukaryotic genomes by assembling, sliding, and displacing nucleosomes. The Chd1 chromatin remodeler possesses a C-terminal DNA-binding domain that is required for efficient nucleosome sliding and believed to be essential for sensing the length of DNA flanking the nucleosome core.
The majority of direct contacts with the phosphate backbone occur only on one DNA strand, suggesting that Chd1 may not strongly discriminate between major and minor grooves. The composition of a genome with respect to all possible short DNA motifs impacts the ability of DNA binding proteins to locate and bind their target sites.
Since nonfunctional DNA binding can be detrimental to cellular functions and ultimately to organismal fitness, organisms could benefit from reducing the number of nonfunctional DNA binding sites genome wide. Using in vitro measurements of binding affinities for a large collection of DNA binding proteins , in multiple species, we detect a significant global avoidance of weak binding sites in genomes.
We demonstrate that the underlying evolutionary process leaves a distinct genomic hallmark in that similar words have correlated frequencies, a signal that we detect in all species across domains of life. We consider the possibility that natural selection against weak binding sites contributes to this process, and using an evolutionary model we show that the strength of selection needed to maintain global word compositions is on the order of point mutation rates.
Likewise, we show that evolutionary mechanisms based on interference of protein-DNA binding with replication and mutational repair processes could yield similar results and operate with similar rates. On the basis of these modeling and bioinformatic results, we conclude that genome-wide word compositions have been molded by DNA binding proteins acting through tiny evolutionary steps over time scales spanning millions of generations.
Identification of DNA-binding proteins by combining auto-cross covariance transformation and ensemble learning. DNA-binding proteins play a pivotal role in various intra- and extra-cellular activities ranging from DNA replication to gene expression control. With the rapid development of next generation of sequencing technique, the number of protein sequences is unprecedentedly increasing. Thus it is necessary to develop computational methods to identify the DNA-binding proteins only based on the protein sequence information.
The protein sequences are first converted into profile-based protein representation, and then converted into a series of fixed-length vectors by the auto-cross covariance transformation with Kmer composition.
The sequence order effect can be effectively captured by this scheme. Experimental results on an independent dataset shows that iDNA-KACC-EL outperforms all the other state-of-the-art predictors, indicating that it would be a useful computational tool for DNA binding protein identification.
HU is one of the most abundant nucleoid-associated proteins in bacterial cells and regulates the expression of many genes involved in growth, motility, metabolism, and virulence. It is known that Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogenicity is related to its characteristic rapid growth and that type III secretion system 1 T3SS1 contributes to its cytotoxicity. However, it is not known if HU plays a role in the pathogenicity of V.
These results suggest that the HU protein regulates the levels of T3SS1 gene expression and cytotoxicity in a growth rate-independent manner. Nucleoid-binding protein HU regulates cellular behaviors, including nucleoid structuring, general recombination, transposition, growth, replication, motility, metabolism, and virulence.
It is thought that both the number of bacteria and the number of virulence factors may affect the pathogenicity of bacteria. In the present study, we investigated which factor s has a dominant role during infection in one of the most rapidly growing bacterial species, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We found that V.
DNA-binding proteins often play important role in various processes within the cell. Over the last decade, a wide range of classification algorithms and feature extraction techniques have been used to solve this problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of HMM profile based features for the DNA-binding protein prediction problem.
Our method was tested on standard benchmark datasets. We experimentally show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods found in the literature. The composition of genomes with respect to short DNA motifs impacts the ability of DNA binding proteins to locate and bind their target sites.
Since nonfunctional DNA binding can be detrimental to cellular functions and ultimately to organismal fitness, organisms could benefit from reducing the number of nonfunctional binding sites genome wide. The underlying evolutionary process leaves a distinct genomic hallmark in that similar words have correlated frequencies, which we detect in all species across domains of life.
We hypothesize that natural selection against weak binding sites contributes to this process, and using an evolutionary model we show that the strength of selection needed to maintain global word compositions is on the order of point mutation rates. Alternative contributions may come from interference of protein-DNA binding with replication and mutational repair processes, which operates with similar rates. We conclude that genome-wide word compositions have been molded by DNA binding proteins through tiny evolutionary steps over timescales spanning millions of generations.
We previously showed that the nucleoid in log phase cells consist of fibrous structures with diameters ranging from 30 to 80 nm, and that these structures, upon RNase A treatment, are converted into homogeneous thinner fibers with diameter of 10 nm. Deletion of particular DNA-binding protein genes altered the nucleoid structure in different ways, but did not release the naked DNA even after the treatment with RNase A.
This suggests that major DNA-binding proteins are involved in the formation of higher order structure once nm fiber structure is built up from naked DNA. Identifying DNA-binding proteins using structural motifs and the electrostatic potential.
Robust methods to detect DNA-binding proteins from structures of unknown function are important for structural biology. This paper describes a method for identifying such proteins that i have a solvent accessible structural motif necessary for DNA-binding and ii a positive electrostatic potential in the region of the binding region. DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Developing high throughput tools for rapidly and effectively identifying DNA-binding proteins is one of the major challenges in the field of genome annotation.
Although many efforts have been made in this regard, further effort is needed to enhance the prediction power. The overall success rate by iDNA-Prot was In addition to achieving high success rate, the computational time for iDNA-Prot is remarkably shorter in comparison with the relevant existing predictors. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results.
DNA-binding proteins are crucial for various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression. Developing an effective model for identifying DNA-binding proteins is an urgent research problem. Up to now, many methods have been proposed, but most of them focus on only one classifier and cannot make full use of the large number of negative samples to improve predicting performance.
Furthermore, when the benchmark dataset was expanded with negative samples, the performance of enDNA-Prot outperformed the three existing methods by 2. It indicated that enDNA-Prot is an effective method for DNA-binding protein identification and expanding training dataset with negative samples can improve its performance.
For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, we developed a user-friendly web-server for enDNA-Prot which is freely accessible to the public. The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions.
Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Inhibition of Cys 2 His 2 zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.
Double-stranded telomeric DNA binding proteins : Diversity matters. Telomeric sequences constitute only a small fraction of the whole genome yet they are crucial for ensuring genomic stability. This function is in large part mediated by protein complexes recruited to telomeric sequences by specific telomere-binding proteins TBPs.
Although the principal tasks of nuclear telomeres are the same in all eukaryotes, TBPs in various taxa exhibit a surprising diversity indicating their distinct evolutionary origin. This diversity is especially pronounced in ascomycetous yeasts where they must have co-evolved with rapidly diversifying sequences of telomeric repeats. In this article we i provide a historical overview of the discoveries leading to the current list of TBPs binding to double-stranded ds regions of telomeres, ii describe examples of dsTBPs highlighting their diversity in even closely related species, and iii speculate about possible evolutionary trajectories leading to a long list of various dsTBPs fulfilling the same general role s in their own unique ways.
Chain-terminating mutations truncating the normally amino-acid TF1 at amino acids 96, 97, and 98 were constructed, as were missense mutations substituting cysteine, arginine, and serine for phenylalanine at amino acid 97 and tryptophan for lysine at amino acid The binding of the resulting proteins to a synthetic bp binding site in 5- hydroxymethyl uracil DNA, to binding sites in larger SPO1 [5- hydroxymethyl uracil-containing] DNA fragments, and to thymine-containing homologous DNA was analyzed by gel retardation and also by DNase I and hydroxy radical footprinting.
We conclude that the C tail up to and including phenylalanine at amino acid 97 is essential for DNA binding and that the two C-terminal amino acids, 98 and 99, are involved in protein-protein interactions between TF1 dimers bound to DNA. Centromeres are the attachment points between the genome and the cytoskeleton: centromeres bind to kinetochores, which in turn bind to spindles and move chromosomes. Paradoxically, the DNA sequence of centromeres has little or no role in perpetuating kinetochores.
As such they are striking examples of genetic information being transmitted in a manner that is independent of DNA sequence epigenetically. It has been found that RNA transcribed from centromeres remains bound within the kinetochore region, and this local population of RNA is thought to be part of the epigenetic marking system.
However, the specificity of DNA binding was low. MASH-1 and MyoD displayed similar binding site preferences, suggesting that their different target gene specificities cannot be explained solely by differential DNA binding.
Exo-Dye-based assay for rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive detection of DNA-binding proteins. We reported herein a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive technique for detecting sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. In this assay, a duplex probe was designed to detect DNA-binding protein. One side of the probe contains one protein -binding site, and another side of it contains five protruding bases at 3' end for protection from ExoIII digestion.
If a target protein is present, it will bind to binding sites of probe and produce a physical hindrance to ExoIII, which protects the duplex probe from digestion of ExoIII. On the contrary, in the absence of the target protein , the naked duplex probe will be degraded by ExoIII. In this study, we employed this technique to successfully detect transcription factor NF-kappaB in crude cell extracts.
Moreover, it could also be used to evaluate the binding affinity of NF-kappaB. This technique has therefore wide potential application in research, medical diagnosis, and drug discovery. Z- DNA binding protein from chicken blood nuclei. A protein Z alpha that appears to be highly specific for the left-handed Z-DNA conformer has been identified in chicken blood nuclear extracts.
In addition, the binding activity of Z alpha is competitively blocked by supercoiled plasmids containing a Z-DNA insert but not by either the linearized plasmid or by an equivalent amount of the parental supercoiled plasmid without the Z-DNA-forming insert. Z alpha can be crosslinked to the 32P-labeled brominated probe with UV light, allowing us to estimate that the minimal molecular mass of Z alpha is 39 kDa. Since the importance of DNA-binding proteins in multiple biomolecular functions has been recognized, an increasing number of researchers are attempting to identify DNA-binding proteins.
In recent years, the machine learning methods have become more and more compelling in the case of protein sequence data soaring, because of their favorable speed and accuracy. We also employ feature selection algorithm on these feature vectors. Then, these features are fed into the training SVM support vector machine model as classifier to predict DNA-binding proteins. Our method achieves the best accuracy in the Jacknife test, from In the independent test, the accuracy of our method comes to The performance of independent test also shows that our method has a certain ability to be effectively used for DNA-binding protein prediction.
Predicting DNA binding proteins using support vector machine with hybrid fractal features. DNA-binding proteins play a vitally important role in many biological processes. Prediction of DNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequence is a significant but not fairly resolved scientific problem.
Chaos game representation CGR investigates the patterns hidden in protein sequences, and visually reveals previously unknown structure. Fractal dimensions FD are good tools to measure sizes of complex, highly irregular geometric objects. In order to extract the intrinsic correlation with DNA-binding property from protein sequences, CGR algorithm, fractal dimension and amino acid composition are applied to formulate the numerical features of protein samples in this paper.
Seven groups of features are extracted, which can be computed directly from the primary sequence, and each group is evaluated by the fold cross-validation test and Jackknife test. Comparing the results of numerical experiments, the group of amino acid composition and fractal dimension dimension vector gets the best result, the average accuracy is This resulting predictor is also compared with existing method DNA-Prot and shows better performances.
Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. DNA-binding proteins are fundamentally important in cellular processes. Several computational-based methods have been developed to improve the prediction of DNA-binding proteins in previous years. However, insufficient work has been done on the prediction of DNA-binding proteins from protein sequence information. The hybrid feature contains two types of novel sequence features, which reflect information about the conservation of physicochemical properties of the amino acids, and the binding propensity of DNA-binding residues and non-binding propensities of non-binding residues.
The comparisons with each feature demonstrated that these two novel features contributed most to the improvement in predictive ability. Furthermore, to improve the prediction performance of the DNABP model, feature selection using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance mRMR method combined with incremental feature selection IFS was carried out during the model construction.
High prediction accuracy and performance comparisons with previous research suggested that DNABP could be a useful approach to identify DNA-binding proteins from sequence information. DNA-binding proteins play vital roles in cellular processes, such as DNA packaging, replication, transcription, regulation, and other DNA-associated activities.
The current main prediction method is based on machine learning, and its accuracy mainly depends on the features extraction method. Therefore, using an efficient feature representation method is important to enhance the classification accuracy. However, existing feature representation methods cannot efficiently distinguish DNA-binding proteins from non- DNA-binding proteins. In this paper, a multi-feature representation method, which combines three feature representation methods, namely, K-Skip-N-Grams, Information theory, and Sequential and structural features SSF , is used to represent the protein sequences and improve feature representation ability.
In addition, the classifier is a support vector machine. The mixed-feature representation method is evaluated using fold cross-validation and a test set. Feature vectors, which are obtained from a combination of three feature extractions, show the best performance in fold cross-validation both under non-dimensional reduction and dimensional reduction by max-relevance-max-distance. Moreover, the reduced mixed feature method performs better than the non-reduced mixed feature technique.
Among these methods, mixed features exhibit superiority over the single features. Structure and DNA-binding of meiosis-specific protein Hop2. Here we report structure elucidation of the DNA binding domain of homologous pairing protein 2 Hop2 , which is important to gene diversity when sperms and eggs are produced.
Together with another protein Mnd1, Hop2 enhances the strand invasion activity of recombinase Dmc1 by over 30 times, facilitating proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes. However, the structural and biochemical bases for the function of Hop2 and Mnd1 have not been well understood. As a first step toward such understanding, we recently solved the structure for the N-terminus of Hop2 using solution NMR. This fragment shows a typical winged-head conformation with recognized DNA binding activity.
DNA interacting sites were then investigated by chemical shift perturbations in a titration experiment. Information of these sites was used to guide protein -DNA docking with MD simulation, revealing that helix 3 is stably lodged in the DNA major groove and that wing 1 connecting strands 2 and 3 transiently comes in contact with the minor groove in nanosecond time scale.
Mutagenesis analysis further confirmed the DNA binding sites in this fragment of the protein. Therefore, the identification and characterization of these proteins are of great importance. We present here a random forests classifier for identifying DBPs among proteins with known three-dimensional structures.
First, clusters of evolutionarily conserved regions patches on the protein 's surface are detected using the PatchFinder algorithm; previous studies showed that these regions are typically the proteins ' functionally important regions. Next, we train a classifier using features like the electrostatic potential, cluster-based amino acid conservation patterns and the secondary structure content of the patches, as well as features of the whole protein including its dipole moment.
Using fold cross validation on a dataset of DNA-binding proteins and proteins which do not bind DNA, the classifier achieved a sensitivity and a specificity of 0. Furthermore, when we tested 5 different methods on 11 new DBPs which did not appear in the original dataset, only our method annotated all correctly. The resulting classifier was applied to a collection of proteins of known structure and unknown function.
Of these proteins , were predicted to bind DNA, and we anticipate that some of them interact with DNA using new structural motifs. The use of complementary computational tools supports the notion that at least some of them do bind DNA.
Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a single-stranded DNA binding protein from Herbaspirillum seropedicae. An open reading frame encoding a protein similar in size and sequence to the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein SSB protein was identified in the Herbaspirillum seropedicae genome.
This open reading frame was cloned into the expression plasmid pET14b. The SSB protein from H. Mass spectrometry data confirmed the identity of this protein. The production of this recombinant protein in good yield opens up the possibility of obtaining its 3D-structure and will help further investigations into DNA metabolism. The structure solution of DNA-binding protein structures and complexes based on the combination of location of DNA-binding protein motif fragments with density modification in a multi-solution frame is described.
Protein—DNA interactions play a major role in all aspects of genetic activity within an organism, such as transcription, packaging, rearrangement, replication and repair. The molecular detail of protein—DNA interactions can be best visualized through crystallography, and structures emphasizing insight into the principles of binding and base-sequence recognition are essential to understanding the subtleties of the underlying mechanisms.
Crystallographic structure solution of protein—DNA complexes therefore remains a challenging area that is in need of optimized experimental and computational methods. The method is based on the combination of locating small, very accurate fragments using the program Phaser and density modification with the program SHELXE. Negatively supercoiled plasmid pUC19 did not compete, whereas an otherwise identical plasmid pUC19 CG , which contained a dG-dC 7 segment in the Z-form was an excellent competitor.
A Southwestern blot using [32P]poly dG-m5dC as a probe in the presence of MgCl2 identified a protein having a molecular weight of 51 kDa. The 51 kDa zuotin was partially sequenced at the N-terminal and the gene, ZUO1, was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli; the expressed zuotin showed similar Z- DNA binding activity, but with lower affinity than zuotin that had been partially purified from yeast.
Zuotin was deduced to have a number of potential phosphorylation sites including two CDC28 homologous to the human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2 phosphorylation sites. A 60 amino acid segment of zuotin has similarity to several histone H1 sequences. Disruption of ZUO1 in yeast resulted in a slow growth phenotype. The gel mobility shift assay method revealed a specifically ultraviolet UV damage recognizing, DNA-binding protein in nuclear extracts of normal human cells.
This superfamily plays important roles in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress, senescence as well as in some developmental processes. These results provided us with structural information to understand the mechanism of transcriptional control and signal transduction events of the WRKY proteins. Identification of DNA-binding proteins using multi-features fusion and binary firefly optimization algorithm.
Therefore, the developing of effective computational tools for identifying DBPs is becoming highly desirable. In this study, we proposed an accurate method for the prediction of DBPs. Firstly, we focused on the challenge of improving DBP prediction accuracy with information solely from the sequence.
Secondly, we used multiple informative features to encode the protein. These features included evolutionary conservation profile, secondary structure motifs, and physicochemical properties. Thirdly, we introduced a novel improved Binary Firefly Algorithm BFA to remove redundant or noisy features as well as select optimal parameters for the classifier.
The experimental results of our predictor on two benchmark datasets outperformed many state-of-the-art predictors, which revealed the effectiveness of our method. The promising prediction performance on a new-compiled independent testing dataset from PDB and a large-scale dataset from UniProt proved the good generalization ability of our method.
In addition, the BFA forged in this research would be of great potential in practical applications in optimization fields, especially in feature selection problems. A highly accurate method was proposed for the identification of DBPs. A user-friendly web-server named iDbP identification of DNA-binding Proteins was constructed and provided for academic use.
NtrC has a three domain structure typical of EBP family. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, an endophytic diazotroph, NtrC regulates several operons involved in nitrogen assimilation, including glnAntrBC. Histone H1 in Leishmania presents relevant differences compared to higher eukaryote counterparts, such as the lack of a DNA-binding central globular domain.
Despite that, it is apparently fully functional since its differential expression levels have been related to changes in chromatin condensation and infectivity, among other features. The localization and the aggregation state of L. Analysis of H1 sequences from the Leishmania Genome Database revealed that our protein is included in a very divergent group of histones H1 that is present only in L.
An antibody raised against recombinant L. Mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro DNA-binding experiments have also proven that L. Finally, despite the lack of a globular domain, L. A simple microplate method was designed for rapid testing DNA-binding activity of proteins.
The principle of the assay involves binding of tested DNA by his-tagged protein immobilized on a nickel-coated ELISA plate, following colorimetric detection of biotinylated DNA with avidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. The method was used to compare DNA mismatch binding activities of MutS proteins from three bacterial species. The assay required relatively low amounts of tested protein approximately 0. Sensitive colorimetric detection enables naked eye observations and quantitation with an ELISA reader.
The performance of the assay, which we believe is a distinguishing trait of the method, is based on two strong and specific molecular interactions: binding of a his-tagged protein to a nickel-coated microplate and binding of biotinylated DNA to avidin. In the reported experiments, the solution was used to optimize the conditions for DNA mismatch binding by MutS protein ; however, the approach could be implemented to test nucleic acids interactions with any protein of interest.
Coupled binding-bending-folding: The complex conformational dynamics of protein-DNA binding studied by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. While thermodynamic aspects of this behavior are understood, and its biological function is often known, the mechanism by which the conformational changes occur is generally unclear.
By providing detailed structural and energetic data, molecular dynamics simulations have been helpful in elucidating and rationalizing protein-DNA binding. This review will summarize recent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational dynamics of DNA and protein-DNA binding. A brief overview of recent developments in DNA force fields is given as well.
Simulations have been crucial in rationalizing the intrinsic flexibility of DNA, and have been instrumental in identifying the sequence of binding events, the triggers for the conformational motion, and the mechanism of binding for a number of important DNA-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations are an important tool for understanding the complex binding behavior of DNA-binding proteins. With recent advances in force fields and rapid increases in simulation time scales, simulations will become even more important for future studies.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Published by Elsevier B. Isolation from genomic DNA of sequences binding specific regulatory proteins by the acceleration of protein electrophoretic mobility upon DNA binding. We report an efficient and flexible in vitro method for the isolation of genomic DNA sequences that are the binding targets of a given DNA binding protein.
This method takes advantage of the fact that binding of a protein to a DNA molecule generally increases the rate of migration of the protein in nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. We have applied this method to isolate a binding site for FadR, a global regulator of fatty acid metabolism in E. Toward rules relating zinc finger protein sequences and DNA binding site preferences. Zinc finger proteins of the Cys2-His2 type consist of tandem arrays of domains, where each domain appears to contact three adjacent base pairs of DNA through three key residues.
We have designed and prepared a series of variants of the central zinc finger within the DNA binding domain of Sp1 by using information from an analysis of a large data base of zinc finger protein sequences. These results provide the basis for rules that may develop into a code that will allow the design of zinc finger proteins with preselected DNA site specificity. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we characterized the molecular mechanism of ssDNA association with SSB.
Placed in solution, ssDNA—SSB assemblies were observed to change their structure spontaneously; such structural changes were suppressed in the crystallographic environment. Such reptation-like motion was confined by DNA binding to high-affinity spots, suggesting a two-step mechanism for SSB diffusion.
The known three-dimensional structure of a related protein was used in devising a scheme of site-directed mutagenesis that led to the creation of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the TF1 gene. At the nonpermissive temperature, this mutation disrupted the temporal regulation of viral protein synthesis and processing, altered the kinetics of accumulation of at least one viral transcript, and prohibited the production of infective progeny phage.
We suggest that TF1 function is required to shut off the expression of several early-middle and middle viral genes and that TF1 plays a role in phage head morphogenesis. Spontaneous second-site mutations of the temperature-sensitive mutant TF1 allele that suppressed its associated phenotypes were analyzed.
These suppressor mutations conferred greater amino acid sequence homology with the type II DNA-binding protein from the thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus. Genome-wide survey of DNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana: analysis of distribution and functions. The interaction of proteins with their respective DNA targets is known to control many high-fidelity cellular processes. Performing a comprehensive survey of the sequenced genomes for DNA-binding proteins DBPs will help in understanding their distribution and the associated functions in a particular genome.
Availability of fully sequenced genome of Arabidopsis thaliana enables the review of distribution of DBPs in this model plant genome. This resulted in proteins , identified as DNA-binding in Arabidopsis genome, which are distributed across different PFam families. Our search protocol helped to assign DNA-binding property to several proteins that were previously marked as unknown, putative or hypothetical in function.
The distribution of Arabidopsis genes having a role in plant DNA repair were particularly studied and noted for their functional mapping. The functions observed to be overrepresented in the plant genome harbour DNAmethyladenine glycosylase activity, alkylbase DNA N-glycosylase activity and DNA- apurinic or apyrimidinic site lyase activity, suggesting their role in specialized functions such as gene regulation and DNA repair.
Purification and general properties of the DNA-binding protein P16 from rat liver mitochondria. The mitochondrial DNA-binding protein P16 was isolated from rat liver mitochondrial lysates by affinity chromatography on single strand DNA agarose and separated from DNA in the preparation by alkaline CsCl isopycnic gradients.
Digestion of single strand DNA-bound P16 with proteinase K produced a protease-insensitive, DNA-binding fragment Mr approximately equal to 6, that has been purified by essentially the same procedures used for intact P The partial amino acid compositions for P16 and the DNA-binding fragment were obtained by conventional methods. Analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that nearly all of the cellular P16 was located in the mitochondria and that only trace amounts of protein of comparable electrophoretic mobility could be isolated from the nuclear or cytoplasmic fractions.
These results indicate that P16 is synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes and imported into the mitochondria. The addition of purified P16 to deproteinized mitochondrial DNA resulted in the complete protection of the labeled nascent strands of displacement loops against branch migrational loss during cleavage of parental DNA with SstI, thus providing strong evidence that P16 is the single entity required for this in vitro function.
HMG-D is a major high mobility group chromosomal protein present during early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Six peptides obtained after digestion of the isolated protein with Achromobacter protease I were partially or completely sequenced. DBP showed a tendency to multimerization in the course of purification and was found to bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA.
The sizes of the protected fragments indicated that a binding site size for DBP is about 30 nt per protein monomer. This helix-destabilizing ability is consistent with the prediction that DBP functions as a single-stranded DNA binding protein in virus replication.
Mikhailov, Victor S. Purified DBP formed oligomers that were crosslinked by redox reagents resulting in predominantly protein dimers and tetramers. In gel retardation assays, DBP showed a high affinity for single-stranded oligonucleotides and was able to compete with another baculovirus SSB protein , LEF-3, for binding sites.
The unwinding and renaturation activities of DBP, as well as the DNA binding activity, were sensitive to sulfhydryl reagents and were inhibited by oxidation of thiol groups with diamide or by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide. These activities and a tight association with subnuclear structures suggests that DBP is a component of the virogenic stroma that is involved in the processing of replicative intermediates. Identification of DNA-binding proteins using structural, electrostatic and evolutionary features.
DNA-binding proteins DBPs participate in various crucial processes in the life-cycle of the cells, and the identification and characterization of these proteins is of great importance. We present here a random forests classifier for identifying DBPs among proteins with known 3D structures. First, clusters of evolutionarily conserved regions patches on the surface of proteins were detected using the PatchFinder algorithm; earlier studies showed that these regions are typically the functionally important regions of proteins.
Next, we trained a classifier using features like the electrostatic potential, cluster-based amino acid conservation patterns and the secondary structure content of the patches, as well as features of the whole protein , including its dipole moment. Using fold cross-validation on a dataset of DBPs and proteins that do not bind DNA, the classifier achieved a sensitivity and a specificity of 0. Furthermore, when we tested five different methods on 11 new DBPs that did not appear in the original dataset, only our method annotated all correctly.
Method for nucleic acid hybridization using single-stranded DNA binding protein. Method of nucleic acid hybridization for detecting the presence of a specific nucleic acid sequence in a population of different nucleic acid sequences using a nucleic acid probe. The nucleic acid probe hybridizes with the specific nucleic acid sequence but not with other nucleic acid sequences in the population. The method includes contacting a sample potentially including the nucleic acid sequence with the nucleic acid probe under hybridizing conditions in the presence of a single-stranded DNA binding protein provided in an amount which stimulates renaturation of a dilute solution i.
An immunoassay was used to examine the interaction between a herpes simplex virus protein , ICP8, and various types of DNA. The advantage of this assay is that the protein is not subjected to harsh purification procedures. No evidence for sequence-specific ds DNA binding was obtained for either the entire herpes simplex virus genome or cloned viral sequences.
Neighboring genes for DNA-binding proteins rescue male sterility in Drosophila hybrids. Crosses between closely related animal species often result in male hybrids that are sterile, and the molecular and functional basis of genetic factors for hybrid male sterility is of great interest.
Here, we report a molecular and functional analysis of HMS1, a region of 9. The HMS1 region contains two strong candidate genes for the genetic incompatibility, agt and Taf1 Both encode unrelated DNA-binding proteins , agt for an alkyl-cysteine-S-alkyltransferase and Taf1 for a subunit of transcription factor TFIID that serves as a multifunctional transcriptional regulator.
The contribution of each gene to hybrid male sterility was assessed by means of germ-line transformation, with constructs containing complete agt and Taf1 genomic sequences as well as various chimeric constructs. Both agt and Taf1 contribute about equally to HMS1 hybrid male sterility. Transgenes containing either locus rescue sterility in about one-half of the males, and among fertile males the number of offspring is in the normal range.
This finding suggests compensatory proliferation of the rescued, nondysfunctional germ cells. Results with chimeric transgenes imply that the hybrid incompatibilities result from interactions among nucleotide differences residing along both agt and Taf1 Our results challenge a number of preliminary generalizations about the molecular and functional basis of hybrid male sterility, and strongly reinforce the role of DNA-binding proteins as a class of genes contributing to the maintenance of postzygotic reproductive isolation.
The HMS1 region contains two strong candidate genes for the genetic incompatibility, agt and Taf1. Both encode unrelated DNA-binding proteins , agt for an alkyl-cysteine-S-alkyltransferase and Taf1 for a subunit of transcription factor TFIID that serves as a multifunctional transcriptional regulator. Results with chimeric transgenes imply that the hybrid incompatibilities result from interactions among nucleotide differences residing along both agt and Taf1.
Our results challenge a number of preliminary generalizations about the molecular and functional basis of hybrid male sterility, and strongly reinforce the role of DNA-binding proteins as a class of genes contributing to the maintenance of postzygotic reproductive isolation.
Immobilization of proteins onto microbeads using a DNA binding tag for enzymatic assays. The resulting protein -coated microbeads can be utilized for functional analysis of the enzymatic activity using flow cytometry. The quantity of bead-bound proteins can be enhanced by increasing the number of ORCs. In addition, proteins with the scCro-tag that were synthesized using a cell-free protein synthesis system were also immobilized onto the beads, thus indicating that this bead-based system would be applicable to high-throughput analysis of various enzymatic activities.
Naturally, TALEs are injected by Xanthomonas bacteria into plant cells to manipulate the host transcriptome. We show that Bat proteins can be adapted for use as transcription factors and nucleases and that sequence preferences can be reprogrammed. This feature allowed us to explore alternative strategies for the design of custom Bat repeat arrays, providing novel insights into the functional relevance of non-RVD residues.
The Bat proteins offer fertile grounds for research into the creation of improved programmable DNA-binding proteins and comparative insights into TALE-like evolution. First, the algorithm predicts the functional region of the protein based on its evolutionary profile; the assumption is that large clusters of conserved residues are good markers of functional regions. Next, various characteristics of the predicted functional region as well as global features of the protein are calculated, such as the average surface electrostatic potential, the dipole moment and cluster-based amino acid conservation patterns.
Finally, a random forests classifier is used to predict whether the query protein is likely to bind DNA and to estimate the prediction confidence. We have trained and tested the classifier on various datasets and shown that it outperformed related methods. The application of the server to an updated version of the N-Func database, which contains proteins of unknown function with solved 3D-structure, suggested new putative DBPs for experimental studies.
Vanarsdall, Adam L. Whereas LEF-3 is a multi-functional protein essential for viral DNA replication, transporting helicase into the nucleus, and forms a stable complex with the baculovirus alkaline nuclease, the role for DBP in baculovirus replication remains unclear. The lack of DBP does not cause a general shutdown of the expression of viral genes, as was revealed by accumulation of early LEF-3 , late VP39 , and very late P10 proteins in cells transfected with the dbp knockout construct. In addition, analysis of the viral DNA replicated by the dbp knockout by using field inversion gel electrophoresis failed to detect the presence of genome-length DNA.
Assessment of the cellular localization of DBP relative to replicated viral DNA by immunoelectron microscopy indicated that, at 24 h post-infection, DBP co-localized with nascent DNA at distinct electron-dense regions within the nucleus. Finally, immunoelectron microscopic analysis of cells transfected with the dbp.
We have assessed their DNA-binding properties and modelled repeat structures. Sequence alignments show that there are only three residues conserved between repeats of all TALE-like proteins including the two new additions. This conserved motif could prove useful as an identifier for future TALE-likes. POZ-domain transcription factors are characterized by the presence of a protein-protein interaction domain called the POZ or BTB domain at their N terminus and zinc fingers at their C terminus.
Despite the large number of POZ-domain transcription factors that have been identified to date and the significant insights that have been gained into their cellular functions, relatively little is known about their DNA binding properties. Remarkably, it binds efficiently to probes carrying these repeats in various orientations and spacings with no particular rotational alignment, indicating that its interaction with DNA is highly flexible.
The high mobility group protein 1 enhances binding of the estrogen receptor DNA binding domain to the estrogen response element. Because HMG1 dramatically enhanced estrogen receptor DBD binding to the ERE, and the DBD is the most highly conserved region among the nuclear receptor superfamily members, HMG1 may function to enhance binding of other nuclear receptors to their respective response elements and act in concert with coactivator proteins to regulate expression of hormone-responsive genes.
Pax-3, a novel murine DNA binding protein expressed during early neurogenesis. We describe the isolation and characterization of Pax-3, a novel murine paired box gene expressed exclusively during embryogenesis. Pax-3 encodes a amino acid protein with an Mr of 56 kd containing both a paired domain and a paired-type homeodomain.
The Pax-3 protein is a DNA binding protein that specifically recognizes the e5 sequence present upstream of the Drosophila even-skipped gene. Pax-3 transcripts are first detected in 8. During early neurogenesis, Pax-3 expression is limited to mitotic cells in the ventricular zone of the developing spinal cord and to distinct regions in the hindbrain, midbrain and diencephalon.
In day embryos, expression of Pax-3 is also seen in neural crest cells of the developing spinal ganglia, the craniofacial mesectoderm and in limb mesenchyme of 10 and 11 day embryos. Genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins using barcode-based multiplex Solexa sequencing. Because ChIP-chip introduces several biases, most notably due to the use of a fixed number of probes, ChIP-Seq has quickly become the method of choice as, depending on the sequencing depth, it is more sensitive, quantitative, and provides a greater binding site location resolution.
With the ever increasing number of reads that can be generated per sequencing run, it has now become possible to analyze several samples simultaneously while maintaining sufficient sequence coverage, thus significantly reducing the cost per ChIP-Seq experiment.
In this chapter, we provide a step-by-step guide on how to perform multiplexed ChIP-Seq analyses. As a proof-of-concept, we focus on the genome-wide profiling of RNA Polymerase II as measuring its DNA occupancy at different stages of any biological process can provide insights into the gene regulatory mechanisms involved.
However, the protocol can also be used to perform multiplexed ChIP-Seq analyses of other DNA-binding proteins such as chromatin modifiers and transcription factors. Correct repair of damaged DNA is critical for genomic integrity. Deficiencies in DNA repair are linked with human cancer. Here we report a novel mechanism by which a virus manipulates DNA damage responses. This results in activated stress responses and apoptosis.
This leads to failure to recruit repair proteins such as Rad51 or Rad9, explaining why LT prevents repair of double strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination. A targeted intervention directed at RPA based on this viral mechanism could be useful in circumventing the resistance of cancer cells to therapy. During animal development, distinct tissues, organs, and appendages are specified through differential gene transcription by Hox transcription factors. However, the conserved Hox homeodomains bind DNA with high affinity yet low specificity.
We have therefore explored the structure of the Drosophila melanogaster Hox protein Ultrabithorax and the impact of its nonhomeodomain regions on DNA binding properties. Computational and experimental approaches identified several conserved, intrinsically disordered regions outside the homeodomain of Ultrabithorax that impact DNA binding by the homeodomain.
Full-length Ultrabithorax bound to target DNA 2. Binding is restored almost to homeodomain affinity by the mostly disordered N-terminal amino acids R region in a length-dependent manner. Both the I2 and R regions contain portions of the activation domain, functionally linking DNA binding and transcription regulation. The amino acid sequences of I2 and much of the I1 and R regions vary significantly among Ultrabithorax orthologues, potentially diversifying Hox-DNA interactions.
We report a dual illumination, single-molecule imaging strategy to dissect directly and in real-time the correlation between nanometer-scale domain motion of a DNA repair protein and its interaction with individual DNA substrates. Conformational dynamics was assessed via FeS-mediated quenching of a fluorophore site-specifically incorporated into XPD. Simultaneously, binding of DNA molecules labeled with a spectrally distinct fluorophore was detected by colocalization of the DNA- and protein -derived signals.
We show that XPD undergoes thermally driven conformational transitions that manifest in spatial separation of its two auxiliary domains. DNA binding does not strictly enforce a specific conformation. Our imaging strategy will be a valuable tool to study other FeS-containing nucleic acid processing enzymes. Activator Protein redox switch controlling structure and DNA-binding. The transcription factor, activator protein -1 AP-1 , binds to cognate DNA under redox control; yet, the underlying mechanism has remained enigmatic.
However, while JunD is competent to bind DNA, the FosB bZIP domain must undergo a large conformational rearrangement that is controlled by a 'redox switch' centered on an inter-molecular disulfide bond. Protein -DNA interactions are involved in many fundamental biological processes essential for cellular function. Most of the existing computational approaches employed only the sequence context of the target residue for its prediction. In the present study, for each target residue, we applied both the spatial context and the sequence context to construct the feature space.
Finally, a predictor PDNAsite was developed through the integration of the support vector machines SVM classifier and ensemble learning. Results on the PDNA and the PDNA datasets demonstrate that features extracted from spatial context provide more information than those from sequence context and the combination of them gives more performance gain. An analysis of the number of binding sites in the spatial context of the target site indicates that the interactions between binding sites next to each other are important for protein -DNA recognition and their binding ability.
Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor. DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood.
Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein -DNA complexes.
Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format.
Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. Sell your art. All Masks Fitted Masks New.
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Both in healthy individuals and in PH patients, these improvements were mediated by a better arterial, muscular, and cerebral oxygenation, along with a reduced sympathetic excitation, as suggested by the reduced heart rate and alveolar ventilation at submaximal isoloads, and an improved pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, especially in patients with PH. In summary, in healthy individuals and in patients with PH, alterations in the inspiratory Po 2 by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or normobaric hyperoxia reduce or enhance exercise performance , respectively, by modifying oxygen delivery to the muscles and the brain, by effects on cardiovascular and respiratory control, and by alterations in pulmonary gas exchange.
The understanding of these physiological mechanisms helps in counselling individuals planning altitude or air travel and prescribing oxygen therapy to patients with PH. The effects of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy , active individuals : a literature synthesis.
PubMed Central. Context: The effect of the application of kinesiotape to skin overlying musculature on measurable athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals has not been well established. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the effect of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy , active individuals.
Retrieved articles that met the eligibility criteria were rated for methodological quality by using an adaption of the critical appraisal criteria in Clinical Epidemiology by Sackett et al. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria.
Seven articles had positive results in at least one athletic-based performance measure compared to controls. Conclusion: Evidence is lacking to support the use of kinesiotape as a successful measure for improving athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals. However, there is no evidence to show that kinesiotape has a negative effect on any of the performace measures. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals : a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training RMT , i. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators.
In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes 6. BDNF polymorphism predicts the rate of decline in skilled task performance and hippocampal volume in healthy individuals.
Numerous studies have indicated a link between the presence of polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF and cognitive and affective disorders. However, only a few have studied these effects longitudinally along with structural changes in the brain.
This study was carried out to investigate whether valine-to-methionine substitution at position 66 val66met of pro-BDNF could be linked to alterations in the rate of decline in skilled task performance and structural changes in hippocampal volume. Participants consisted of healthy Caucasian pilots aged 40—69 years who completed a minimum of 3 consecutive annual visits.
Standardized flight simulator score SFSS was measured as a reliable and quantifiable indicator for skilled task performance. In addition, a subset of these individuals was assessed for hippocampal volume alterations using magnetic resonance imaging.
Structurally, age-dependent hippocampal volume changes were also significantly altered by this substitution. Our study suggests that val66met polymorphism in BDNF can be linked to the rate of decline in skilled task performance. Furthermore, this polymorphism could be used as a predictor of the effects of age on the structure of the hippocampus in healthy individuals. Such results have implications for understanding possible disabilities in older adults performing skilled tasks who are at a higher risk for cognitive and affective disorders.
The influence of age, gender and education on the performance of healthy individuals on a battery for assessing limb apraxia. ABSTRACT Introduction: Apraxia is defined as a disorder of learned skilled movements, in the absence of elementary motor or sensory deficits and general cognitive impairment, such as inattention to commands, object-recognition deficits or poor oral comprehension.
Limb apraxia has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding and covers a wide spectrum of disorders, all involving motor cognition and the inability to perform previously learned actions. Demographic variables such as gender, age, and education can influence the performance of individuals on different neuropsychological tests.
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of healthy subjects on a limb apraxia battery and to determine the influence of gender, age, and education on the praxis skills assessed. Methods: Forty-four subjects underwent a limb apraxia battery, which was composed of numerous subtests for assessing both the semantic aspects of gestural production as well as motor performance itself.
The tasks encompassed lexical-semantic aspects related to gestural production and motor activity in response to verbal commands and imitation. Results: We observed no gender effects on any of the subtests. Only the subtest involving visual recognition of transitive gestures showed a correlation between performance and age.
However, we observed that education level influenced subject performance for all sub tests involving motor actions, and for most of these, moderate correlations were observed between education level and performance of the praxis tasks. Conclusion: We conclude that the education level of participants can have an important influence on the outcome of limb apraxia tests.
Apraxia is defined as a disorder of learned skilled movements, in the absence of elementary motor or sensory deficits and general cognitive impairment, such as inattention to commands, object-recognition deficits or poor oral comprehension. The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of healthy subjects on a limb apraxia battery and to determine the influence of gender, age, and education on the praxis skills assessed.
Forty-four subjects underwent a limb apraxia battery, which was composed of numerous subtests for assessing both the semantic aspects of gestural production as well as motor performance itself. We observed no gender effects on any of the subtests. We conclude that the education level of participants can have an important influence on the outcome of limb apraxia tests.
Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals. The formation of reactive oxygen species ROS contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance.
Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP] , nitric oxide NOx bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H 2 O 2 ] , endothelium function flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI] , and exercise tolerance stress test were assessed, and the double product was measured.
Response inhibition predicts painful task duration and performance in healthy individuals performing a cold pressor task in a motivational context. Long-term avoidance of painful activities has shown to be dysfunctional in chronic pain.
Pain may elicit escape or avoidance responses automatically, particularly when pain-related fear is high. An inhibitory control system may resolve this conflict. Response inhibition was measured with the stop-signal task, and pain-related fear with the Fear of Pain Questionnaire. Participants completed a tone-detection task TDT in which they could earn money while being exposed to cold pressor pain.
Pain after the CPT was associated with pain-related fear, but not with response inhibition. In contrast, the relation between response inhibition and number of hits on the TDT was most pronounced for those with lower pain-related fear. The role of color in the implicit memory performance of healthy older adults and individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Although the Alzheimer's disease AD patients in this study were severely impaired in recognition performance , their naming performance demonstrated normal priming across transformations in object color.
This is evidence for preserved implicit shape-based memory performance in AD patients. For colored-object decision, healthy older adult control participants but not AD patients showed priming for new associations between previously encountered object shapes and colors.
The author argues, on the basis of this colored object decision performance , that the deficits present in AD do not allow shape and color to be integrated to form a novel unitized representation that can be used to benefit cognitive performance. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.
When measurement of resting metabolic rate RMR by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
The Ovid database was searched for papers published between and using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered to , and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group.
Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music.
RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than minutes and minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown.
Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II.
One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the. Effects of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met polymorphism and resting brain functional connectivity on individual differences in tactile cognitive performance in healthy young adults. Cognitive processes involve input from multiple sensory modalities and obvious differences in the level of cognitive function can be observed between individuals.
Evidence to date understanding the biological basis of tactile cognitive variability, however, is limited compared with other forms of sensory cognition. Data from auditory and visual cognition research suggest that variations in both genetics and intrinsic brain function might contribute to individual differences in tactile cognitive performance.
In the present study, by using the tactual performance test TPT , a widely used neuropsychological assessment tool, we investigated the effects of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and resting-state brain functional connectivity FC on interindividual variability in TPT performance in healthy , young Chinese adults. Having fewer Met alleles, stronger anticorrelations between left posterior superior temporal gyrus and somatosensory areas right postcentral gyrus and right parietal operculum cortex , and greater positive correlation between left parietal operculum cortex and left central opercular cortex, all correspond with better performance of TPT task.
And FC between left parietal operculum cortex and left central opercular cortex might be a mediator of the relationship between BDNF genotypes and Memory subitem score. These data demonstrate a novel contribution of intrinsic brain function to tactile cognitive capacity, and further confirm the genetic basis of tactile cognition.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. Brain-computer interfacing BCI has recently been applied as a rehabilitation approach for patients with motor disorders, such as stroke. In these closed-loop applications, a brain switch detects the motor intention from brain signals, e.
In this context, single trial detection of motor intention with short latency is a prerequisite. The performance of the event detection from EEG recordings is mainly determined by three factors: the type of motor imagery e.
In this study, we investigated single trial EEG traces during movement imagination on healthy individuals , and provided a comprehensive analysis of the performance of a short-latency brain switch when varying these three factors. The morphological investigation showed a cross-subject consistency of a prolonged negative phase in MRCP, and a delayed beta rebound in sensory-motor rhythms during repetitive tasks.
The detection performance had the greatest accuracy when using ballistic MRCP with time-series analysis. The results presented here are of practical relevance for designing BCI systems for motor function rehabilitation. Type A behaviour and the healthy individual. The Type A behaviour pattern TABP is an interesting and controversial construct that has generated debate, empirical testing, and behavioural modification attempts. TABP is depicted as consisting of impatient or hurried behaviour, a strong orientation toward work responsibilities and task completion, and intensive competitive behaviour in situations that involve evaluation.
After more than two decades of debate, testing, and attempting to modify the entire TABP there is now a growing acceptance of the proposition that a major overhaul or change in the TABP is not necessary or even feasible. The Type A person is also now being presented as possessing many desirable characteristics and healthy behaviours that are worth reinforcing. The present paper provides a brief review of the contradictory research evidence surrounding the Type A syndrome. Theorists, researchers, and organizational practitioners are encouraged to seek improvements in understanding the TABP through improved assessment and how it can be modified in generally healthy individuals.
A theoretical model to guide improvement efforts in measurement and intervention is provided as a viable framework to examine causal pathways between antecedents, Type A core behaviours, responses, and consequences. The effect of two types of memory training on subjective and objective memory performance in healthy individuals aged 55 years and older: a randomized controlled trial. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two types of memory training collective and individual , compared to control waiting list , on memory performance.
Participants were community-dwelling older individuals recruited through media advertisements asking for people with subjective memory complaints to participate in a study. Data were collected at baseline, and at 1 week and 4 months after the intervention. Training efficacy was assessed using measures of subjective and objective memory performance.
After the intervention, participants in the collective training group reported more stability in memory functioning and had fewer feelings of anxiety and stress about memory functioning. In addition, positive effects were found on objective memory functioning. Compared with the other two groups, the collective training group participants had an improved recall of a previously learned word list.
Compared to controls, participants in the individual training group reported fewer feelings of anxiety and stress in relation to memory functioning. Background Muscular weakness of the shoulder complex is commonly found in patients presenting with scapular dyskinesis; however, little is known regarding muscular performance in healthy individuals with scapular dyskinesis.
Purpose To compare isometric strength measures of the shoulder complex between healthy individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis. It was hypothesized that healthy individuals with scapular dyskinesis would demonstrate decreased isometric strength of the scapular stabilizers and rotator cuff when compared to healthy individuals without scapular dyskinesis.
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Forty healthy , college-aged participants were recruited. Sixty-eight percent of subjects 27 of 40 presented with scapular dyskinesis. Thus, a matched-pairs analysis was conducted with 26 subjects age: Strength of the scapular stabilizers and rotator cuff was assessed via manual muscle testing using a handheld dynamometer. Force measures obtained with the handheld dynamometer were used to quantify strength.
For each muscle tested, the mean peak force of three trials were normalized to body weight and used for data analysis. Additionally, strength ratios were calculated and analyzed. Differences in strength and strength ratios between those with and without scapular dyskinesis were compared using separate two-way mixed ANOVAs with repeated measures.
Results No significant differences for either strength F1. A significant main effect F1. Sleep deprivation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cocoa flavonoids exert cardiovascular benefits and neuroprotection. Whether chocolate consumption may mitigate detrimental effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance and cardiovascular parameters has never been studied. We investigated the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate consumption on cognitive skills and cardiovascular parameters after sleep deprivation.
Thirty-two healthy participants underwent two baseline sessions after one night of undisturbed sleep and two experimental sessions after one night of total sleep deprivation. Two hours before each testing session, participants were randomly assigned to consume high or poor flavanol chocolate bars.
Sleep deprivation impaired flow-mediated dilation 5. Flavanol-rich chocolate preserved working memory accuracy in women after sleep deprivation. Flavanol-rich chocolate counteracted vascular impairment after sleep deprivation and restored working memory performance. Improvement in cognitive performance could be because. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals.
Walling, Dennis M. Principal Investigator. We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus EBV infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied.
These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed. Trapp, Georgina S. Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual , social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.
Fatigue in healthy and diseased individuals. Although fatigue is experienced by everyone, its definition and classification remains under debate. A review of the previously published data on fatigue. Fatigue is influenced by age, gender, physical condition, type of food, latency to last meal, mental status, psychological conditions, personality type, life experience, and the health status of an individual.
Fatigue may not only be a symptom but also a measurable and quantifiable dimension, also known as fatigability. Additionally, it may be classified as a condition occurring at rest or under exercise or stress, as physiologic reaction or pathologic condition, as spontaneous phenomenon or triggerable state, as resistant or irresistant to preconditioning, training, or attitude, as prominent or collateral experience, and as accessible or inaccessible to any type of treatment or intervention.
Fatigue may be the sole symptom of a disease or one among others. It may be also classified as acute or chronic. Quantification of fatigability is achievable by fatigue scores, force measurement, electromyography, or other means.
Fatigue and fatigability need to be delineated from conditions such as sleepiness, apathy, exhaustion, exercise intolerance, lack of vigor, weakness, inertia, or tiredness. Among neurological disorders, the prevalence of fatigue is particularly increased in multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson disease, traumatic brain injury, stroke, and bleeding and also in neuromuscular disorders.
Fatigue may be influenced by training, mental preconditioning, or drugs. Fatigue needs to be recognized as an important condition that is not only a symptom but may also be quantified and can be modified by various measures depending on the underlying cause. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.
Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals , with particular regard to gender differences.
One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro- volume and micro- mean diffusivity, MD structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score.
Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals.
Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males.
Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals. Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obese versus normal weight or overweight individuals.
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between healthy lifestyle habits eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily, exercising regularly, consuming alcohol in moderation, and not smoking and mortality in a large, population-based sample stratified by body mass index BMI. We examined the association between healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in a sample of 11, men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; subjects were ages 21 and older and fell at various points along the BMI scale, from normal weight to obese.
Subjects were enrolled between October and October and were followed for an average of months. When stratified into normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, all groups benefited from the adoption of healthy habits, with the greatest benefit seen within the obese group.
Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with a significant decrease in mortality regardless of baseline body mass index. In-vivo patellar tracking in individuals with patellofemoral pain and healthy individuals. Understanding of the exact cause of patellofemoral pain has been limited by methodological challenges to evaluate in-vivo joint motion.
This study compared six degree-of-freedom patellar motion during a dynamic lunge task between individuals with patellofemoral pain and healthy individuals. Knee joints of eight females with patellofemoral pain and ten healthy females were imaged using a CT scanner in supine lying position, then by a dual-orthogonal fluoroscope while they performed a lunge. To quantify patellar motion, the three-dimensional models of the knee bones, reconstructed from CT scans, were registered on the fluoroscopy images using the Fluomotion registration software.
At full knee extension, the patella was in a significantly laterally tilted PFP: In the non-weight-bearing knee extended position, the patella was in a significantly laterally tilted position in the patellofemoral pain group 7. Future studies should investigate the associations between patellar kinematics with joint morphology, muscle activity, and tendon function in a same sample for a thorough understanding of the causes of patellofemoral pain.
Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging. Increases in life expectancy make it important to remain healthy for as long as possible. Our objective was to examine the extent to which healthy behaviours in midlife, separately and in combination, predict successful aging.
We used a prospective cohort design involving men and women aged years. Participants were free of cancer, coronary artery disease and stroke when their health behaviours were assessed in as part of the Whitehall II study. We defined successful aging, measured over a median At the end of follow-up, participants had died and qualified as aging successfully. Compared with participants who engaged in no healthy behaviours, participants engaging in all 4 healthy behaviours had 3. The association with successful aging was linear, with the odds ratio OR per increment of healthy behaviour being 1.
When missing data were considered in the analysis, the results were similar to those of our main analysis. Although individual healthy behaviours are moderately associated with successful aging, their combined impact is substantial. We did not investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, but we saw clear evidence of the importance of healthy behaviours for successful aging.
Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance. Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Short 8 to 15 s excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer.
Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders.
Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers , and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns.
Electromyography is a method to evaluate levels of muscle activity. When a muscle contracts, an action potential is generated and this circulates along the muscular fibers. In electromyography, electrodes are connected to the skin and the electrical activity of muscles is measured and graph is plotted.
The surface EMG signals picked up during the muscular activity are interfaced with a system. The EMG signals from individual suffering from Neuropathy and healthy individual , so obtained, are processed and analyzed using signal processing techniques. The prospective use of this study is in developing the prosthetic device for the people with Neuropathic disability. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals. It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity.
The special sample preparation was performed , followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human international index of protein using the program Mascot MS version 2.
From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years youth and mature age 1 , years mature age 2 and years mature age 3 It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age.
It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients under 25 years old , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons 25 to 40 years.
When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group years there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake. A geographic information system measured proximity of supermarkets from each participant's home.
Univariate and multivariate models were constructed using linear regression. Initiatives to improve adherence to dietary guidelines and reduce the consumption of unhealthy foods needs to be multifaceted; addressing individual factors and access to healthy food choices in both the home and neighborhood food environment. Ensuring proximity to local supermarkets, particularly in new suburban developments, appears.
Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of ten healthy individuals. Bik, Elisabeth M. The composition of the oral microbiota from 10 individuals with healthy oral tissues was determined using culture-independent techniques. From each individual , 26 specimens, each from different oral sites at a single point in time, were collected and pooled. An eleventh pool was constructed using portions of the subgingival specimens from all 10 individuals. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified using broad-range bacterial primers, and clone libraries from the individual and subgingival pools were constructed.
At least 15 bacterial genera were conserved among all 10 individuals , with significant interindividual differences at the species and strain level. Comparisons of these oral bacterial sequences to near full-length sequences found previously in the large intestines and feces of other healthy individuals suggest that the mouth and intestinal tract harbor distinct sets of bacteria.
Co-occurrence analysis demonstrated significant segregation of taxa when community membership was examined at the level of genus, but not at the level of species, suggesting that ecologically-significant, competitive interactions are more apparent at a broader taxonomic level than species.
This study is one of the more comprehensive, high-resolution analyses of bacterial diversity within the healthy human mouth to date, and highlights the value of tools from macroecology for enhancing our understanding of bacterial ecology in human health. Muscle torque of healthy individuals and individuals with spastic hemiparesis after passive static streching.
Spasticity is one of the main causes of contracture, muscle weakness and subsequent functional incapacity. The passive static stretching can be included as having the purpose of increasing musculoskeletal flexibility, however, it also can influence the muscle torque. The objective is to verify the immediate effect of passive static stretching in the muscle strength of healthy and those who present spastic hemiparesis. There were assessed 20 subjects, 10 spastic hemiparetic EG and 10 healthy individuals CG , including both sexes, aged between 22 and 78 years.
The torque of extensor muscles of the knee was analyzed using isokinetic dynamometer. Results have shown that EG has less muscle torque compared to CG p performing the program that was prescribed. Immediately after the passive stretch, a significant torque decrease can be seen in hypertonic muscle; it is believed that this reduction may be associated with the physiological overlap between actin and myosin filaments and so preventing the muscle to develop a maximum contraction.
Reproducibility of dynamically represented acoustic lung images from healthy individuals. Background and aim: Acoustic lung imaging offers a unique method for visualising the lung. This study was designed to demonstrate reproducibility of acoustic lung images recorded from healthy individuals at different time points and to assess intra- and inter-rater agreement in the assessment of dynamically represented acoustic lung images.
Methods: Recordings from 29 healthy volunteers were made on three separate occasions using vibration response imaging. Reproducibility was measured using quantitative, computerised assessment of vibration energy. Dynamically represented acoustic lung images were scored by six blinded raters.
Results: Quantitative measurement of acoustic recordings was highly reproducible with an intraclass correlation score of 0. Intraclass correlations for inter-rater agreement and reproducibility were 0. There was no significant difference found between the six raters at any time point. Conclusion: Acoustic lung imaging is reproducible in healthy individuals. Graphic representation of lung images can be interpreted with a high degree of accuracy by the same and by different reviewers.
Fuermaier, Anselm B. Objectives Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration WBV might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. Methods Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study.
WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention i. Results A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups.
WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed. Imitation of transitive and intransitive actions in healthy individuals. A handful of patients have been described as being impaired in performing transitive gestures, despite being still able to perform intransitive gestures.
This impairment need not be explained by assuming different mechanisms; rather, it can be due to transitive actions being more difficult. In this study we tested whether neurologically healthy participants had greater difficulties in imitating transitive actions with respect to intransitive actions.
Consistent with the prediction, subjects imitated intransitive better than transitive gestures. The ease of imitation of intransitive actions supports the complexity account of apraxic impairments. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies.
This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components.
Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence. Emotional intelligence components in alcohol dependent and mentally healthy individuals. Evaluation of rotator cuff muscle strength in healthy individuals. METHODS: To evaluate the muscle strength of upper limbs from isometric contractions in the horizontal direction rotation an isometric dynamometer was used, equipped with transducers, signal conditioning, a data acquisition board, and finally, a computer.
Study participants were 22 male military subjects, aged between 18 and 19 years old, body mass between No statistical difference was observed by comparing the strength values of all isometric strength tests. Experimental Study. Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals. Vojta reflex locomotion is important to main upright posture through stimulation of breast zone to patient with cerebral palsy. However, application in other diseases is no investigated.
So, we determined the effects of stimulation of the breast zone on trunk stability in healthy individuals. Fourteen young healthy adults 7 males and 7 females voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group breast zone and control group arbitrary point.
All groups were stimulated for 5 min on the left and right sides, respectively, for a total 10 times. We used the thickness of the external oblique abdominal muscle EO , the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the transversus abdominis muscle TrA , and the rectus abdominis muscles, as well as the area of the diaphragm by using ultrasonography.
In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation P Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals. In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation P Biological variation of vitamins in blood of healthy individuals.
Components of biological variation can be used to define objective quality specifications imprecision, bias, and total error , to assess the usefulness of reference values [index of individuality II ], and to evaluate significance of changes in serial results from an individual [reference change value RCV ]. However, biological variation data on vitamins in blood are limited.
The aims of the present study were to determine the intra- and interindividual biological variation of vitamins A, E, B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, and K and carotenoids in plasma, whole blood, or erythrocytes from apparently healthy persons and to define quality specifications for vitamin measurements based on their biology.
Fasting plasma, whole blood, and erythrocytes were collected from 14 healthy volunteers at regular weekly intervals over 22 weeks. Vitamins were measured by HPLC. CV I was 4. Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation PA is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviors, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear.
Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control SC processes in PA may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced SC might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error-detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction.
The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether SC and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard PA. Each participant completed three PA procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During PA, visual feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise, or represented veridically.
Compressed visual space significantly reduced SC and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms. Influence of risperidone on balance control in young healthy individuals.
It has previously been shown that impairment of postural stability is a side effect of typical antipsychotic drugs, which are largely administered to control psychosis and behavioral symptoms in elderly patients. Surprisingly, no study has yet addressed this problem with second-generation antipsychotics. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which risperidone at low doses altered balance control in healthy participants.
Risperidone administered at low doses did not elicit clinically detectable EPS but had significant effects on balance control. A dose-response effect on impairment of balance was observed that followed the expected time course of the drug pharmacokinetics. These results are likely to apply to older or demented individuals who have pre-existing balance control deficit. Beta-papillomaviruses in anogenital hairs plucked from healthy individuals.
Beta-HPV were found in a total of 38 The difference in the lifetime-cumulative sun exposure is the most likely explanation for the differences obtained on beta-HPV prevalence. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals. Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk.
The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate g on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation FMD of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index AIx , and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity PWV were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively.
Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde MDA and total antioxidant capacity TAC. Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study maximum increase by 0. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects. Fear conditioning induced by interpersonal conflicts in healthy individuals. Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes.
In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors.
The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors' face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts.
Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response SCR. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder.
Increased blood BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression. The brain-derive neurotrophic factor BDNF may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute to an elevation of peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals.
The effect of stimulus strength on binocular rivalry rate in healthy individuals : Implications for genetic, clinical and individual differences studies. Binocular rivalry BR occurs when conflicting images concurrently presented to corresponding retinal locations of each eye stochastically alternate in perception.
Anomalies of BR rate have been examined in a range of clinical psychiatric conditions. In particular, slow BR rate has been proposed as an endophenotype for bipolar disorder BD to improve power in large-scale genome-wide association studies.
Such requirements are indeed relevant to all clinical psychiatric BR studies. Here we address the issue of stimulus optimization by examining the effect of stimulus parameter variation on BR rate and mixed-percept duration MPD in healthy individuals.
Employing a repeated-measures within-subjects design, 40 healthy adults completed four BR tasks using orthogonally drifting grating stimuli that varied in drift speed and aperture size. Pairwise comparisons were performed to determine modulation of BR rate and MPD by these stimulus parameters, and individual variation of such modulation was also assessed.
In addition to contributing to stimulus optimization issues, the findings have implications for Levelt's Proposition IV of binocular rivalry dynamics and individual differences in such dynamics. Transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's region improves phonemic and semantic fluency in healthy individuals. Previous studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS can be proficiently used to modulate attentional and cognitive functions.
For instance, in the language domain there is evidence that tDCS can fasten picture naming in both healthy individuals and aphasic patients, or improve grammar learning. In this study, we investigated whether tDCS can be used to increase healthy subjects' performance in phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, that are typically used in clinical assessment of language.
Ten healthy individuals performed a semantic and a phonemic fluency task following anodal tDCS applied over Broca's region. Each participant underwent a real and a sham tDCS session. Participants were found to produce more words following real anodal tDCS both in the phonemic and in the semantic fluency.
Control experiments ascertained that this finding did not depend upon unspecific effects of tDCS over levels of general arousal or attention or upon participants' expectations. Tags: supernatural, charlie bradbury, lily sunder, abaddon, anna milton, rowena, rowena macleod.
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