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|Sports betting west virginia where to go||However, some modifications were introduced to eliminate potential confounders. Familiarity with and social distance from people who have serious mental illness. However, this difference disappeared when the psychiatric hospital did not include a forensic unit. At the end of, persons were registered in Basel-City. These include: AlpineGyro Ltd.|
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The latest updates from the Swiss Official Gazette of Commerce SOGC are available in the original language of the source commercial register office only. View all notifications. Gallen, in Bern, Mitglied des Stiftungsrates, mit Kollektivunterschrift zu zweien [ bisher: Mitglied, mit Kollektivunterschrift zu zweien ]. Here you will find a link from the management to a hit list of persons with the same name who are registered in the commercial register.
Menu DE. Register free of charge Login. Ursula Wirz-Stiftung Overview. Ownership structure. Reports Overview Credit rating information Payment behaviour Economic information Payment collection information. Company About us Job offers Book advertising Data sources. Regional news Help section Contact us.
Neighbourhood News from the Bern-Mittelland region. Credit rating information. Economic information. Payment behaviour. Payment collection information. The management of the organization Ursula Wirz-Stiftung, which was founded on the The last change in the commercial register was made on There are 11 other active companies registered at the same address. These include: AlpineGyro Ltd. Executive board Rudolf Buri. Authorized signatories Nicole Carmen Herzog , Dr. Source: SOGC. Perceptions of dangerousness might be influenced by different sources of information.
One source might be information about symptoms or deviant behavior dangerousness associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, psychiatric symptoms are, in contrast to other stigmatized conditions such as ethnicity, often invisible. Consequently, information about psychiatric service use e. This in turn negatively influences psychiatric service use and adherence: To avoid stigmatization, individuals with mental illness tend to avoid the treatment they are in need for 8 , 9.
More precisely, individuals with alcoholism are perceived as more dangerous than individuals with psychosis Yet, research on the stigmatization of individuals with symptoms of personality disorders is still scarce. The only existent studies suggest that mental health professionals 11 , 12 perceive individuals with borderline personality disorder BPD as more dangerous than individuals with alcoholism. However this effect might be specific to professionals, as individuals with BPD tend to evoke a intense disorder-specific countertransference in treatment Thus, supplemental studies in the general population are needed.
To the best of our knowledge, there is as yet no research on dangerousness associated with psychiatric service use that studies differences across different types of service institutions. However, there is one previous study showing that hospitalizations in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital evoke less desire for social distance the latter being another facet of stigmatization as mentioned above It is plausible that the concrete type of institution also influences perceptions of dangerousness.
For instance, by often being geographically dislocated, psychiatric hospitals might evoke associations of confinement and thus foster perceptions of dangerousness In addition, familiarity with psychiatric illness 16 is known to influence the stigma associated with displaying psychiatric symptoms. For instance, Angermeyer et al.
The present study is the first to compare the amount of perceived dangerousness associated with psychiatric symptoms versus with psychiatric service use. Furthermore, we pitted perceived dangerousness associated with symptoms of BPD in the general population against perceived dangerousness associated with symptoms of alcohol dependency and schizophrenia. Finally, our study is the first to compare the amount of perceived dangerousness across different psychiatric inpatient institutions, including forensic-psychiatric settings.
Data come from a survey on psychiatric service use and stigmatization that was conducted from autumn to spring among citizens of Basel, Switzerland The current study used questionnaires that were sent out to the general population aged 18 or above. It included a letter detailing study procedures, stating that participation was completely optional, and that non-participation would not be followed by any consequence.
Persons agreed to participate by sending in their questionnaire. This procedure was accepted as informed consent by the EKNZ. The manuscript does not contain information or images that could lead to identification of a study participant. A sample of 10, individuals was randomly drawn from the cantonal resident register and was mailed study material. To be eligible, participants had to be registered in a private household in Basel-City, Bettingen, or Riehen for a minimum of two years, had to be aged from 18 to 65 years, and had to have sufficient knowledge of the German language.
This approach was chosen in a consensus procedure together with the Statistical Office of Basel-City and an external advisory committee to generate a representative study sample. Participants had to read a vignette and answer several questionnaires.
Vignettes described a fictitious character and depicted either the psychiatric symptoms of the character case vignette or a clinic the character had been admitted to clinic vignette. Between both types of vignettes, gender and dangerousness of the fictitious patient were systematically varied: Half of the case vignettes contained a male Sebastian M.
Moreover, it was explicitly stated that within the last month the main character case vignette or the patients of the clinic clinic vignette , either displayed no dangerous behavior, self-endangering behavior, or behavior endangering others. Additionally, between the case vignettes, type of psychiatric symptoms was systematically varied. They either described a case of acute psychotic disorder, a case of alcohol dependency, or a case of borderline personality disorder, not being labeled directly, but with symptoms fulfilling the relevant DSM-V criteria Case vignettes were constructed based on the vignettes that had been used in previous stigma research 19 , However, some modifications were introduced to eliminate potential confounders.
Apart from the characteristics that were systematically varied i. Supporting the validity of the case vignettes, each diagnosis was labeled correctly by all of the clinical experts. Moreover, between the clinic vignettes, type of the psychiatric service institution to which the fictitious character was admitted was systematically varied. Vignettes either described a general hospital including a psychiatric unit, or a psychiatric hospital, or a psychiatric hospital also including a forensic unit.
Thus, we systematically manipulated the characteristics that are per definition specific to the respective types of clinics, as well as gender and dangerousness, whereas all other information e. Considering the variations described above there were 36 individual vignette conditions, so that each condition was sent to about participants for the concrete wording of exemplary vignette conditions see Sowislo et al.
The final sample consisted of 2, individuals Mean age of participants was To assess representativeness of our sample, respondent characteristics were compared to official census data as published in the statistical almanac of Basel-City However, this comparison has to be interpreted with caution, as the data available from the statistical almanac represent the whole population of Basel-City without the restrictions posed by our in- and exclusion criteria.
At the end of , , persons were registered in Basel-City. Mean age was The comparison shows that questionnaires were sent out to over 5. The study sample represents more than 1. However, there seems to be an overrepresentation of women and of persons with higher education in our sample.
Perceived dangerousness was measured with the dangerousness scale 22 , The scale consists of eight items that assess individual beliefs about the dangerousness of the fictitious person in the vignette. Responses were made on a 4-point scale and a composite with higher values indicating higher perceived dangerousness was derived by totaling the sum of all items.
Familiarity with mental illness was measured with four items asking participants whether they themselves had ever undergone psychiatric inpatient or outpatient treatment, and whether anyone within their family or anyone within their circle of friends had ever undergone psychiatric treatment.
Similar to Angermeyer et al. If more than one category applied for one respondent, we chose the one with the highest familiarity. We examined differences in social distance between case and clinic vignettes using an independent t -test. Then, we conducted two separate multiple regression analyses for the case and clinic vignettes respectively, with perceived dangerousness as dependent variable.
Categorical predictors with more than two categories i. In the first regression analysis, type of psychiatric symptoms, gender and dangerousness of the fictitious person in the vignette, and familiarity with psychiatric illness of the respondent were entered as independent variables. In the second regression analysis, type of psychiatric service, gender of the fictitious person in the vignette, dangerousness, and familiarity with psychiatric illness of the respondent were entered as independent variables.
Multiple regression analysis offers a significance test for the difference between the chosen reference category e. However, it does not allow statistically comparing the comparison groups e. To do so, we statistically pitted the available standardized regression weights e.
As suggested by Cohen et al. In this equation, i and j denote the two dummy variables, n is the number of participants, k is the number of independent variables, R 2 is the coefficient of determination, and r ii , r jj , and r ij represent corresponding elements of the inverted correlation matrix. Second, the regression predicting dangerousness of the fictitious person in the case vignettes revealed that familiarity, type of psychiatric symptoms, dangerousness, and gender of the fictitious person were significant predictors see Table 1.
Concerning familiarity, perceived dangerousness was significantly lower when the participant, a family member, or a friend versus none of them had undergone psychiatric treatment. Concerning type of psychiatric symptoms, symptoms of alcohol dependency tended to elicit significantly more perceived dangerousness than symptoms of BPD, whereas there was no corresponding difference between symptoms of alcohol dependency and symptoms of psychotic disorder.
Finally and replicating prior research, the description of a female fictitious person provoked significantly less perception of danger than the description of a male fictitious person. Confidence intervals and standard errors SE are based on bootstrap samples. Third, the regression predicting dangerousness of the fictitious person in the clinic vignettes revealed that familiarity, type of psychiatric symptoms, dangerous behavior, and gender of the fictitious person were significant predictors see Table 2.
Concerning familiarity, the pattern of the first regression analysis was replicated. Concerning type of psychiatric service, patients of a general hospital with a psychiatric unit tended to elicit less perception of dangerousness than patients of a psychiatric hospital with a forensic unit. Patients of a psychiatric hospital without a forensic unit provoked similar perceived dangerousness as patients of a psychiatric hospital with a forensic unit.
Concerning dangerous behavior manipulated across the vignettes, information that an individual was inpatient at a hospital some of whose patients endanger others elicited significantly more perceived dangerousness than information that none of the other patients had shown dangerous behavior. However, and in contrast to the previous analyses, the degree of dangerousness did not differ for some of the other patients showing behavior endangering others versus self-endangering behavior.
Last and as in the previous analysis, male fictitious persons yielded higher ratings of perceived dangerousness than female fictitious persons. This vignette and questionnaire based study is the first to show that individuals with mental illness are believed to be more dangerous than individuals using psychiatric services.
Dangerousness associated with psychiatric symptoms was diagnosis-specific: While symptoms of alcohol dependency elicited stronger perception of dangerousness, symptoms of BPD and acute psychotic disorder did so to a lesser extent.
Dangerousness associated with psychiatric services was partly institution-specific: Individuals were perceived more dangerous when they used a psychiatric hospital with a forensic unit in contrast to a general hospital which included a psychiatric unit. However, this difference disappeared when the psychiatric hospital did not include a forensic unit. Furthermore, concerning the relative amount of dangerousness, it made no significant difference whether the psychiatric hospital included a forensic unit or not.
The respondent being familiar with psychiatric illness decreased both symptom and service-use related stigma. Behavior endangering others and self-endangering behavior both increased perceived dangerousness associated with psychiatric symptoms e. Finally, male persons tended to elicit more perceived dangerousness than female persons. Our findings demonstrate that individuals displaying psychiatric symptoms case vignette are believed to be more dangerous than individuals using psychiatric institutions clinic vignette.
This is in line with previous findings that demonstrated a similar pattern of results for a familiar component of stigma, namely desire for social distance Together these findings highlight that a distinction along the source of stigma symptoms vs.
As stigma emerging from symptoms versus service use seems to be relatively independent our study systematically varies one source of stigma while simultaneously holding the other constant anti-stigma campaigns should target both. With regard to type of symptoms, alcohol dependency was believed to be the most dangerous condition. This might be at least partly due to differences in the frequency of personal experience More people in the general population might have been confronted with alcohol-related violence than with violence related to the two other conditions, because alcohol consumption is relatively prevalent in non-clinical as well as clinical settings Yet, this perceived rang-order might accurately mirror the corresponding rank-order in risk estimates for violence.
More precisely, in their meta-analysis Fazel et al. Thus, although the amount of dangerousness of individuals with psychiatric symptoms might be overestimated, differences in dangerousness between different symptom conditions might be judged accurately. This hypothesis should be investigated in future studies in the general population.
Our study is the first to show that perceived dangerousness is directly connected to the type of psychiatric service used by an individual, independent of the psychiatric diagnosis or symptoms displayed. Indeed, in our study we observed that, although diagnoses treated did not vary, the use of a psychiatric hospital is eliciting more dangerousness than the use of a general hospital that includes a psychiatric unit.
This is interesting as — in contrast to psychiatric symptoms — the structure of psychiatric services provided in an area could be changed. As the stigma associated with psychiatric treatment tends to be institution-specific, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might be a possibility to decrease stigmatization and increase the utilization and thereby improve the outcome of psychiatric treatment.
Moreover, concerning the degree of stigmatization, in our study it makes no difference whether the psychiatric hospital includes a forensic unit or not. This observation supports the view that — despite being informed adequately about the patient population— the general population is not able to distinguish a common psychiatric hospital where medical care is provided from a forensic hospital, where legally detained criminals are treated.
Finally, our study shows that familiarity with mental illness decreases perceptions of dangerousness. In the context of other studies, a difference between having had contact to a person in psychiatric treatment or not seems to replicate across studies
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